Author Topic: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates  (Read 144585 times)

Offline Athelstane

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #360 on: 10/01/2023 08:32 pm »
Quote
The challenge of fitting enough high quality instrumentation onto a spacecraft, in one photo.


And that's just one lab. I think the quick response to anybody who suggests that you can do great in-situ analysis is to note that you cannot fit a cyclotron in a lander.

And that, alas, will remain the case until there is some kind of serious, permanent base on the planetary bodies in question - and I mean, something that looks at least like one of the reasonably robust Antarctic bases. Which is at least a plausible scenario for the Moon and Mars....within our lifetimes. (So I hope, at any rate). Even so, I expect that plenty of samples will still be making their way back to Earth from both places no matter how robust the bases get...

But that will not be feasible for any other body for a long while to come. I may be critical of Mars Sample Return as currently constituted, but I have never doubted the value of actually getting samples like these back safely to terra firma.

Offline Blackstar

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #361 on: 10/01/2023 09:32 pm »
And that, alas, will remain the case until there is some kind of serious, permanent base on the planetary bodies in question - and I mean, something that looks at least like one of the reasonably robust Antarctic bases. Which is at least a plausible 

Not even then. Most Antarctic samples are analyzed in places other than Antarctica. And to revisit my earlier comment, there's no cyclotron at Antarctica either.


Offline Zed_Noir

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #362 on: 10/03/2023 04:12 pm »
Quote
The challenge of fitting enough high quality instrumentation onto a spacecraft, in one photo.
And that's just one lab. I think the quick response to anybody who suggests that you can do great in-situ analysis is to note that you cannot fit a cyclotron in a lander.
Good point.  Here is a lightweight and compact cyclotron that masses a mere 7.5 tonnes, assuming you could drop the 56 tonnes of shielding for this application.
In theory the compact Cyclontron mention by @LouScheffer could be reconfigured into a Big Shiny lander, replacing everything above the propellant tanks except for the outer hull. Maybe the 1 meter thick polyethylene internal cladding is adequate shielding for incoming space radiation and outgoing radiation from the Cyclotron. If not more cladding could be added.

As long as someone is willing to fund adapting the compact Cyclotron into a large space vehicle. There will likely be no lack of customers who can get many results in-situ sooner instead of the hassle of transporting minuscule amount of samples back to Earth for allocation to various labs at extremely high cost and long delay.

Of course a few more big shiny lander will be needed to provided power, storage & accommodations to support operating a Cyclotron in-situ.

It is the cost tradeoff between expensive and complex sample return missions versus sending adequate in-situ sample analysis capability. The cost tradeoff will change with the introduction of cheap heavy lift launchers.

Offline deadman1204

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #363 on: 10/03/2023 04:27 pm »
Quote
The challenge of fitting enough high quality instrumentation onto a spacecraft, in one photo.
And that's just one lab. I think the quick response to anybody who suggests that you can do great in-situ analysis is to note that you cannot fit a cyclotron in a lander.
Good point.  Here is a lightweight and compact cyclotron that masses a mere 7.5 tonnes, assuming you could drop the 56 tonnes of shielding for this application.
In theory the compact Cyclontron mention by @LouScheffer could be reconfigured into a Big Shiny lander, replacing everything above the propellant tanks except for the outer hull. Maybe the 1 meter thick polyethylene internal cladding is adequate shielding for incoming space radiation and outgoing radiation from the Cyclotron. If not more cladding could be added.

As long as someone is willing to fund adapting the compact Cyclotron into a large space vehicle. There will likely be no lack of customers who can get many results in-situ sooner instead of the hassle of transporting minuscule amount of samples back to Earth for allocation to various labs at extremely high cost and long delay.

Of course a few more big shiny lander will be needed to provided power, storage & accommodations to support operating a Cyclotron in-situ.

It is the cost tradeoff between expensive and complex sample return missions versus sending adequate in-situ sample analysis capability. The cost tradeoff will change with the introduction of cheap heavy lift launchers.
::)

Offline Blackstar

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #364 on: 10/03/2023 07:00 pm »
It is the cost tradeoff between expensive and complex sample return missions versus sending adequate in-situ sample analysis capability. The cost tradeoff will change with the introduction of cheap heavy lift launchers.

No it won't. This is a silly argument. OSIRIS-REx samples are being divided up to go to multiple laboratories around the world, many equipped with different equipment worth huge amounts of money and staffed by many different people. That's never going to be replicated in situ.

Offline vjkane

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #365 on: 10/03/2023 07:24 pm »
It is the cost tradeoff between expensive and complex sample return missions versus sending adequate in-situ sample analysis capability. The cost tradeoff will change with the introduction of cheap heavy lift launchers.

No it won't. This is a silly argument. OSIRIS-REx samples are being divided up to go to multiple laboratories around the world, many equipped with different equipment worth huge amounts of money and staffed by many different people. That's never going to be replicated in situ.
Not to mention that the steps and equipment needed to prepare samples for these instruments are complex in themselves

Offline Zed_Noir

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #366 on: 10/04/2023 04:51 am »
It is the cost tradeoff between expensive and complex sample return missions versus sending adequate in-situ sample analysis capability. The cost tradeoff will change with the introduction of cheap heavy lift launchers.

No it won't. This is a silly argument. OSIRIS-REx samples are being divided up to go to multiple laboratories around the world, many equipped with different equipment worth huge amounts of money and staffed by many different people. That's never going to be replicated in situ.

True that in-situ analysis will likely never be as good as the Earth Labs. However there will be a lot less Earthside analysis work if someone can do most of it much sooner in-situ with adequate sample analysis. AIUI most of the labs need their scientists putting out papers before someone else beat them to it on specific subject. Kinda hard to do analysis waiting for the samples to get to Earth while someone in-situ is sending in research papers.

Offline russianhalo117

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #367 on: 10/04/2023 05:31 am »
I have added the OSIRIS-APEX extended mission to the thread title. A new splinter thread is currently not warranted based on forum precedents to date.

Offline deadman1204

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #368 on: 10/04/2023 02:48 pm »
It is the cost tradeoff between expensive and complex sample return missions versus sending adequate in-situ sample analysis capability. The cost tradeoff will change with the introduction of cheap heavy lift launchers.

No it won't. This is a silly argument. OSIRIS-REx samples are being divided up to go to multiple laboratories around the world, many equipped with different equipment worth huge amounts of money and staffed by many different people. That's never going to be replicated in situ.

True that in-situ analysis will likely never be as good as the Earth Labs. However there will be a lot less Earthside analysis work if someone can do most of it much sooner in-situ with adequate sample analysis. AIUI most of the labs need their scientists putting out papers before someone else beat them to it on specific subject. Kinda hard to do analysis waiting for the samples to get to Earth while someone in-situ is sending in research papers.
I think there is a basic disconnect here. Space flight can never even approach working in a lab for several reasons:
1. the amount of work and preperation that goes into working on samples and everything involved there
2. There are dozens and dozens of different instruments, techniques, different approaches to study a sample. No one lab or building can contain them. If you get into different settings, filters, adjustments and add ons - hundreds if not thousands. Cyclotrons are the size of buildings too.
3. The enormous difference in space flight instruments and lab instruments. Perseverance is using the equivalent of a 90s phone processor. Everything in space needs to be tiny, light, extremely reliable, work in awful environments (high/low temps, high radiation, ect), use very small amounts of power, require no futsing, ect.
Lab equipment can be as big and heavy as we want. Using piles of power. It can be finicky because it hasn't had 20 years of working out the kinks. It can require people to physically interact with it to be used. Simple things like "turn the sample around" get really complicated in space flight.
Its not a money thing, its simply not possible to do in space what we do in the lab.
4. Data. EVERY mission is enormously data constrained. The mars rovers work for only a couple hours per day. Even then they hold data for months at a time trying to find time to send it back. 99% of data from the voyagers is blatantly ignored. We just dont have the time/equipment to dedicate something to listening to it most of the time.
Every mission has to consider what data to take and how to send it back. Even if you had magic instruments that did everything a lab could do, its not possible to send most of that information back to earth.
This data issue isn't simply due to the dsn not being 100 times larger. Missions don't have the power budget to have high bit rate communication back to earth. It took new horizons years to send back all the data it took over 48 hours.
5. We can fix stuff on earth. Everything that breaks in space is broken forever. We can upgrade stuff too. ORex has late 90s early 2000 technology, cause thats when it was designed. It can't be changed. Any lab can upgrade any machine it has tomorrow. So even in a magic world of infinite power, weight, complexity, ect - a mission still couldn't keep up. Spend 10 years flying somewhere and its already decades behind the curve. 
« Last Edit: 10/04/2023 03:03 pm by deadman1204 »

Offline Blackstar

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #369 on: 10/04/2023 05:45 pm »
I think there is a basic disconnect here. Space flight can never even approach working in a lab for several reasons:
1. the amount of work and preperation that goes into working on samples and everything involved there
2. There are dozens and dozens of different instruments, techniques, different approaches to study a sample. No one lab or building can contain them. If you get into different settings, filters, adjustments and add ons - hundreds if not thousands. Cyclotrons are the size of buildings too.
3. The enormous difference in space flight instruments and lab instruments. Perseverance is using the equivalent of a 90s phone processor. Everything in space needs to be tiny, light, extremely reliable, work in awful environments (high/low temps, high radiation, ect), use very small amounts of power, require no futsing, ect.
Lab equipment can be as big and heavy as we want. Using piles of power. It can be finicky because it hasn't had 20 years of working out the kinks. It can require people to physically interact with it to be used. Simple things like "turn the sample around" get really complicated in space flight.
Its not a money thing, its simply not possible to do in space what we do in the lab.
4. Data. EVERY mission is enormously data constrained. The mars rovers work for only a couple hours per day. Even then they hold data for months at a time trying to find time to send it back. 99% of data from the voyagers is blatantly ignored. We just dont have the time/equipment to dedicate something to listening to it most of the time.
Every mission has to consider what data to take and how to send it back. Even if you had magic instruments that did everything a lab could do, its not possible to send most of that information back to earth.
This data issue isn't simply due to the dsn not being 100 times larger. Missions don't have the power budget to have high bit rate communication back to earth. It took new horizons years to send back all the data it took over 48 hours.
5. We can fix stuff on earth. Everything that breaks in space is broken forever. We can upgrade stuff too. ORex has late 90s early 2000 technology, cause thats when it was designed. It can't be changed. Any lab can upgrade any machine it has tomorrow. So even in a magic world of infinite power, weight, complexity, ect - a mission still couldn't keep up. Spend 10 years flying somewhere and its already decades behind the curve. 

Yep, totally true. To point #2 I'd add that one of the things that happens on Earth is that one lab tests a sample using one process, and another lab tests a sample using a totally different process that they might have invented last month. That kind of checking and flexibility is a great strength. An in situ instrument is going to be based upon a single design choice, not all of the possible technologies and techniques.

But to your list I would add a #6: Samples can be tested in the future. Several scientists have said that the best research ever done on Apollo samples has been done in the last few years, half a century after they were brought back to Earth, using equipment and techniques that had not even been thought of in the Apollo era. No matter what instruments you take to the landing site, they represent a finite point in time. I can guarantee you that some of the O-REx samples are going to be put into long-term storage and won't be looked at for a decade or more, using much improved technology.




Addendum: Let me add one more thing. Because of most of the reasons listed above, but also including #6 that I added, it will be especially useful if the mission brought back a significantly larger sample than the baseline minimum. If they planned for 100 grams and got 2 kilograms, that means that a lot more samples can go out to different labs, and it also means that more can be stored for future analysis. Think about the ability to give it out to 20 labs around the world instead of 10 and you start to understand the opportunities for analysis.
« Last Edit: 10/05/2023 11:56 pm by Blackstar »

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #370 on: 10/04/2023 07:23 pm »


Quote
The first asteroid sample collected in space by a U.S. spacecraft and brought to Earth is unveiled to the world at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston on Wednesday, Oct. 11.

The science team from NASA’s OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security – Regolith Explorer) mission will provide results from an initial analysis of the sample, which landed on Sunday, Sept. 24, in the Utah desert. News conference participants include:

• NASA Administrator Bill Nelson
• Lori Glaze, NASA Planetary Directorate Science Division Director
• Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator, University of Arizona, Tucson
• Francis McCubbin, OSIRIS-REx Head Astromaterials curator, NASA Johnson
• Daniel Glavin, OSIRIS-REx sample analysis lead, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt

Scientists worldwide will study the bits of asteroid to gather clues about the origin of the solar system and how life may have begun on Earth.

Offline Don2

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #371 on: 10/05/2023 10:02 am »
The most important part of the mission is only just getting underway. The analysis of the sample will continue in ground based labs for years.

It may turn out to be similar to the Orgueil meteorite, which is one of the most primitive known. The samples that Hayabusa brought back from Ryuku are quite similar to Orgueil. The material is the product of an ancient hydrothermal system which was active on a protoplanet shortly after the formation of the solar system.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orgueil_(meteorite)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/162173_Ryugu

When watching the capsule recovery, I thought about how nice it would be to see Martian samples returned in a similar may. The samples being collected by Perseverance are unlike anything we have on Earth, and will be very interesting when they are finally analyzed in Earth laboratories. NASA needs to find a way to bring them back.

Sample return is mostly chemistry and the work is probably done by different scientists than those who analyze images and spectra from more traditional missions.

Offline deadman1204

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #372 on: 10/05/2023 03:28 pm »
Sample return is also an incredibly rare opportunity to prove out ground truths. Mars also benefits from this. Orbiters see one thing, but science loves to prove that what they think they see really is that thing.

Offline Targeteer

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #373 on: 10/05/2023 09:30 pm »
Oct. 5, 2023

MEDIA ADVISORY: M23-127

NASA to Host Asteroid Sample Media Call; Provide Experts for Interviews

Photographic coverage of OSIRIS REx Asteroid Sample Return lid opening at Building 31 Astromaterials Curation Facility.

Following a public unveiling of the United States’ first asteroid sample at 11 a.m. EDT Wednesday, Oct. 11, NASA will host a media teleconference and separate in-person interviews in English and Spanish with experts from the agency and the University of Arizona.

The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security – Regolith Explorer) spacecraft capped its seven-year mission on Sunday, Sept. 24, with the delivery of a pristine sample of surface material from asteroid Bennu.

The unveiling event at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston will air live on NASA TV, the NASA app, and the agency’s website.

The media teleconference will begin at 2:30 pm EDT and include members of the OSIRIS-REx science team. Audio of the call will stream live at:

https://www.nasa.gov/nasatv

In addition, subject matter experts are available for interviews beginning at 2:30 p.m. CDT (3:30 p.m. EDT), Oct. 11, in-person and remotely:

    Maritza Montoya, OSIRIS-REx sample processor, NASA Johnson (Spanish speaker)
    Ann Nguyen, OSIRIS-REx scientist, NASA Johnson
    Kimberly Allums, OSIRIS-REx Jacobs Engineering project lead, NASA Johnson
    Salvador Martinez III, OSIRIS-REx lead technology development engineer, NASA Johnson (Spanish speaker)
    Daniel Glavin, senior scientist, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center
    Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator, University of Arizona

The following morning, subject matter experts also will be available for interviews beginning at 5:30 a.m. CDT (6:30 a.m. EDT) Oct. 12:

    Lindsay Keller, OSIRIS-REx scientist, NASA Johnson
    Maritza Montoya, OSIRIS-REx sample processor, NASA Johnson (Spanish speaker)
    Daniel Glavin, senior scientist, NASA Goddard
    Salvador Martinez III, OSIRIS-REx lead technology development engineer, NASA Johnson (Spanish speaker)
    Kathleen Vander Kaaden, NASA’s Science Mission Directorate chief scientist for astromaterials curation, NASA Headquarters

Please contact the NASA Johnson newsroom for any of these opportunities at 281-483-5111 or [email protected]. Media interested in participating in the call must request participation no later than two hours prior to the start time, and are asked to dial-in 15 minutes early as well. The deadline to request in-person or remote one-on-one interviews is Friday, Oct. 6.

In between the OSIRIS-REx media events on Oct. 11, the agency also will host a prelaunch news conference at 1 p.m. to discuss its upcoming Psyche mission to a metal-rich asteroid. That event will air live on NASA TV, the NASA app, and the agency’s website.

NASA Johnson houses the world’s largest collection of astromaterials from the solar system under one roof, including samples from asteroids, comets, Mars, the Moon, Sun, and dust from other stars. Scientists use world-class laboratories to perform research on planetary materials and the space environment to investigate the origin and evolution of our solar system and beyond.

Learn more about the OSIRIS-REx mission at:

https://www.nasa.gov/osiris-rex
Best quote heard during an inspection, "I was unaware that I was the only one who was aware."

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #374 on: 10/10/2023 04:47 pm »
https://twitter.com/nasasolarsystem/status/1711716809332724200

Quote
Just a few weeks ago, we watched the #OSIRISREx capsule land on Earth. Now let's see what's inside.

Watch live at Oct. 11 at 11 a.m. ET as we share our first impressions of the sample from asteroid Bennu.


Offline Blackstar

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #375 on: 10/11/2023 03:18 pm »
TAGSAM is not yet open. They're just using the stuff that spilled out.

Nelson just said that they exceeded their 60 gram collection goal. My guess is that they did that simply with the stuff that spilled out of the sampling mechanism. Assuming that TAGSAM is not empty, then they should have a lot of material.
« Last Edit: 10/11/2023 03:26 pm by Blackstar »

Offline Blackstar

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #376 on: 10/11/2023 03:24 pm »

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #377 on: 10/11/2023 03:27 pm »
https://twitter.com/nasaspaceflight/status/1712127355353768343

Quote
NASA: "A  view of the outside of the OSIRIS-REx sample collector. Sample material from asteroid Bennu can be seen on the middle right. Scientists have found evidence of both carbon and water in initial analysis of this material. The bulk of the sample is located inside."

Photo: NASA/Erika Blumenfeld & Joseph Aebersold

https://www.nasa.gov/news-release/nasas-bennu-asteroid-sample-contains-carbon-water/

Quote
Initial studies of the 4.5-billion-year-old asteroid Bennu sample collected in space and brought to Earth by NASA show evidence of water and high-carbon content, which together could indicate the building blocks of life on Earth may be found in the rock. NASA made the news Wednesday from its Johnson Space Center in Houston where leadership and scientists showed off the asteroid material for the first time since it landed in September.

This finding was part of a preliminary assessment of NASA’s OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security – Regolith Explorer) science team.

“The OSIRIS-REx sample is the biggest carbon-rich asteroid sample ever delivered to Earth and will help scientists investigate the origins of life on our own planet for generations to come,” said NASA Administrator Bill Nelson. “Almost everything we do at NASA seeks to answer questions about who we are and where we come from. NASA missions like OSIRIS-REx will improve our understanding of asteroids that could threaten Earth while giving us a glimpse into what lies beyond. The sample has made it back to Earth, but there is still so much science to come – science like we’ve never seen before.” 

Although more work is needed to understand the nature of the carbon compounds found, the initial discovery bodes well for future analyses of the asteroid sample. The secrets held within the rocks and dust from the asteroid will be studied for decades to come, offering insights into how our solar system was formed, how the precursor materials to life may have been seeded on Earth, and what precautions need to be taken to avoid asteroid collisions with our home planet.

Bonus sample material

The goal of the OSIRIS-REx sample collection was 60 grams of asteroid material. Curation experts at NASA Johnson, working in new clean rooms built especially for the mission, have spent 10 days so far carefully disassembling the sample return hardware to obtain a glimpse at the bulk sample within. When the science canister lid was first opened, scientists discovered bonus asteroid material covering the outside of the collector head, canister lid, and base. There was so much extra material it slowed down the careful process of collecting and containing the primary sample.

“Our labs were ready for whatever Bennu had in store for us,” said Vanessa Wyche, director, NASA Johnson. “We’ve had scientists and engineers working side-by-side for years to develop specialized gloveboxes and tools to keep the asteroid material pristine and to curate the samples so researchers now and decades from now can study this precious gift from the cosmos.”

Within the first two weeks, scientists performed “quick-look” analyses of that initial material, collecting images from a scanning electron microscope, infrared measurements, X-ray diffraction, and chemical element analysis. X-ray computed tomography was also used to produce a 3D computer model of one of the particles, highlighting its diverse interior. This early glimpse provided the evidence of abundant carbon and water in the sample.

“As we peer into the ancient secrets preserved within the dust and rocks of asteroid Bennu, we are unlocking a time capsule that offers us profound insights into the origins of our solar system,” said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator, University of Arizona, Tucson. “The bounty of carbon-rich material and the abundant presence of water-bearing clay minerals are just the tip of the cosmic iceberg. These discoveries, made possible through years of dedicated collaboration and cutting-edge science, propel us on a journey to understand not only our celestial neighborhood but also the potential for life’s beginnings. With each revelation from Bennu, we draw closer to unraveling the mysteries of our cosmic heritage.”

For the next two years, the mission’s science team will continue characterizing the samples and conduct the analysis needed to meet the mission’s science goals. NASA will preserve at least 70% of the sample at Johnson for further research by scientists worldwide, including future generations of scientists. As part of OSIRIS-REx’s science program, a cohort of more than 200 scientists around the world will explore the regolith’s properties, including researchers from many U.S. institutions, NASA partners JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), CSA (Canadian Space Agency), and other scientists from around the world. Additional samples will also be loaned later this fall to the Smithsonian Institution, Space Center Houston, and the University of Arizona for public display.

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, provides overall mission management, systems engineering, and the safety and mission assurance for OSIRIS-REx. Lauretta, the principal investigator, leads the science team and the mission’s science observation planning and data processing. Lockheed Martin Space in Littleton, Colorado, built the spacecraft, provided flight operations, and was responsible for capsule recovery. Goddard and KinetX Aerospace were responsible for navigating the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Curation for OSIRIS-REx, including processing the sample when it arrived on Earth, is taking place at NASA Johnson.

OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers Program, managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

Find more information about NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission at:

https://www.nasa.gov/osiris-rex

-end-
« Last Edit: 10/11/2023 03:28 pm by FutureSpaceTourist »

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #378 on: 10/11/2023 03:37 pm »
https://twitter.com/nasa/status/1712128115575509482

Quote
Here they are. These bits of ancient space rock may hold clues to how the rocky planets—including our own—formed. Scientists worldwide will study the #OSIRISREx sample for generations to come to get answers on where we come from.

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: OSIRIS-REx/OSIRIS-APEX Mission Updates
« Reply #379 on: 10/11/2023 03:59 pm »

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