Physicists start considering it as nothing more than a mathematical construct to help in their equations but with little to no physical reality -- despite experiments to the contrary.

HiI recently checked out an online paper that discussed this concept. It started with a discussion of the history of Maxwell's equations and their rewriting by other physicists, plus some concepts that could be fruitfully explored for new physical insights. That was quite intriguing and is a worthwhile research topic, so well worth exploring further. The vector representation vs using quaternions and Clifford algebra is an active bit of mathematical physics - preprints pop up on the arXiv fairly regularly.However the author lost me when he claimed electron and proton beams don't have a magnetic field. By that point I knew he was a crank with no experimental experience. Magnetic self-focusing of electron beams has been studied & used for years in plasma physics. That, and other slips, indicated he had introduced contradictions into his theory - and a contradiction can be used to 'prove' anything.

Hi,The EM drive is made up of a condenser, a resistor, and a vacuum tube, and it is not assembled with mathematical expressions. Maxwell committed a big mistake when Maxwell reworked Faraday's experiments into mathematical formulas. It thought that electric flux lines would neutralize. Maxwell adapted the image that heat conveys to electric lines of force.BTW, matter consists of protons, electrons and neutrons. Neutrons are protons and electrons.Therefore, the substance is made up of protons and electrons. Proton, electrons may not have mass.Something that is perceived as mass creates something, so it may seem that there is mass.Think about only electrons. When a force is applied to an electron, a magnetic field is generated in the rear. Changes in the magnetic field produce an electric field. The electric field attracts electrons in the opposite direction to the force applied to the electrons. In other words, applying force to electrons generates electromagnetic waves, which creates resistance. The same thing happens with protons. Resistance is generated in the direction opposite to the applied force when viewed from the whole substance. The generated electromagnetic wave is canceled out by protons and electrons and it does not come out.Is this resistance similar to mass? If electromagnetic waves are applied to stationary electrons, force will probably work on electrons.If a positive electric field hits the electrons, electrons are pulled back and move. The negative is reversed.If there are many negative electric fields by chance, the entire substance will be drawn in the direction in which the electromagnetic wave came.Is this an EM drive?