Author Topic: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments  (Read 17726 times)

Offline john smith 19

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #20 on: 05/28/2016 10:36 AM »
If your fuel was LH2, which is substantially lighter than LOX, then you're burning it off during the upper cruise phase to get more LOX, in order to save on having to take off with that LOX on the ground. So the question is, could it be worth it?
That was one of the other key features of Bond's simulation work. Prolonging air breathing is not worth while.
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If the vehicle was itself a TSTO rather than SSTO, maybe the LOX-collection could serve as a form of cross-feed to an upper stage? (Like the way FalconHeavy's side-cores cross-feed propellant to the central core which keeps traveling onward without them)
AFAIK SX have discontinued plans for FH to do cross feed.
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Like I said, the idea seems weird to me, but I was wondering if the hard numbers would justify it.
It is weird. You now have 2 very large stages with very low TRL's to design and build with a low probablity of delivering your target performance.
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So that was interesting - storing the energy from frictional heating in chemical bonds by having the heating modify the fuel. Never heard of that before.
IIRC Ranulf said the USN had first looked at this for a hypersonic missile concept. I think Zubrin was involved with the programme but I'm not sure. Cryogenic fuels on USN ships being completely unacceptable the question was could you actively cool the skin with the fuel and create conditions so you can "crack" the fuel into Ethyn, which IIRC burns pretty fast.
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Offline Ohsin

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #21 on: 06/21/2016 08:59 PM »
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The test flight of the indigenously-developed scramjet engine is scheduled to take place from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota sometime in July.

<snip>

“The vehicle has been characterised and is being fabricated at the VSSC and the ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri,” VSSC Director K.Sivan told The Hindu

<snip>

The air-breathing engine will be released at a height of 70 km and ignited during the coasting phase. Apart from the hypersonic ignition at Mach 6, ISRO hopes to sustain the combustion for 5 seconds.

“The test is also expected to help us achieve good thrust value with the scramjet engine,” Dr. Sivan said.

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/isro-gears-up-to-test-scramjet-engine/article8756849.ece
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Offline Ohsin

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #22 on: 07/23/2016 06:18 PM »
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ISRO ready for air-breathing propulsion experiment

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is looking forward to performing “an experiment” before July-end aboard its RH-560 rocket fitted with a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine for demonstrating air-breathing propulsion technology.

At three tonnes, the two-stage RH-560, christened Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV), is the heaviest sounding rocket built by the ISRO. It will lift off from a launch pad built for sounding rockets at Sriharikota. The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, has developed the engine.

“The ignition of the scramjet engine in flight and holding the flame steadily for five seconds” — when the air from the atmosphere is being rammed into the engine through an inlet at a supersonic speed of six Mach — “is the objective of the experiment,” said VSSC Director K. Sivan.

<snip>

The entire mission will last 260 seconds.

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/isro-ready-for-airbreathing-propulsion-experiment/article8891367.ece

And here is NOTAM

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A1571/16 - ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLE (ATV-D02)SOUNDING ROCKET LAUNCH FM SHAR RANGE,SRIHARIKOTA WILL TAKE PLACE AS PER FLW DETAILS. LAUNCH PAD COORD : 13 41 44 N 080 14 05 E. NO FLT IS PERMITTED OVER THE DNG ZONE. I)DANGER ZONE- 1 IS A CIRCLE OF 10NM AROUND THE LAUNCHER II)DANGER ZONE-2 IS A SECTOR BTN RADII OF 50NM AND 250NM FM THE LAUNCH PAD AND BTN AZIMUTH ANGLES 080 DEG AND 120 DEG FM TRUE NORTH ROUTES AFFECTED IN CHENNAI FIR ARE: W20,A465,N571,P761,P574,B466,L518,Q10,Q11,V3,V4,V6,V8,V9,V11,Q23 AND Q24 CLOSURE/ALTERNATE ROUTINGS: A) W20 NOT AVBL BTN MMV VOR AND BODEL ALTN ROUTE: MMV VOR-TR319/139DEG-53NM-TTP VOR-TR357/177DEG-81NM-BODEL -W20 (BIDIRECTIONAL) B) A465 NOT AVBL BTN MMV VOR AND DOCKET ALTN ROUTE:MMV VOR-TR319/139DEG-DIST 53NM-TTP VOR-VT034/214 DEG -DIST 53NM-POINT 'A'(142225N 0800303E)-TR055/235DEG-126NM-DOCKET-A465 (BIDIRECTIONAL) END PART 1 OF 2. BTN 0130-0530, 28 JUL 01:30 2016 UNTIL 11 AUG 05:30 2016. CREATED: 22 JUL 08:15 2016

Search operations for IAF's AN-32 with 29 personnel is still underway...
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Offline input~2

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #23 on: 07/23/2016 07:03 PM »
And here is NOTAM
See also the Indian sub-orbital launches thread where this NOTAM first appeared
« Last Edit: 07/23/2016 07:04 PM by input~2 »

Offline Ohsin

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #24 on: 07/23/2016 08:03 PM »
And here is NOTAM
See also the Indian sub-orbital launches thread where this NOTAM first appeared

Missed it..as it wasn't there for any previous ones. Glad someone is on watch :) Given how rare suborbitals are from SHAR that would be keeping track of all those from TERLS and elsewhere.

Edit: NOTAM A1571/16 cancelled.
« Last Edit: 07/25/2016 03:58 PM by Ohsin »
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Offline vyoma

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #26 on: 08/30/2016 03:22 PM »
ATV-D02 scramjet engine testing thread: https://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=40934.0
« Last Edit: 08/30/2016 03:23 PM by vyoma »

Offline vyoma

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #27 on: 08/30/2016 03:24 PM »
http://www.isro.gov.in/isro%E2%80%99s-scramjet-engine-technology-demonstrator-successfully-flight-tested

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ISRO’s Scramjet Engine Technology Demonstrator Successfully Flight Tested

Today, satellites are launched into orbit by multi-staged satellite launch vehicles that can be used only once (expendable). These launch vehicles carry oxidiser along with the fuel for combustion to produce thrust. Launch vehicles designed for one time use are expensive and their efficiency is low because they can carry only 2-4% of their lift-off mass to orbit. Thus, there is a worldwide effort to reduce the launch cost.

Nearly 70 % of the propellant (fuel-oxidiser combination) carried by today’s launch vehicles consists of oxidiser. Therefore, the next generation launch vehicles must use a propulsion system which can utilise the atmospheric oxygen during their flight through the atmosphere which will considerably reduce the total propellant required to place a satellite in orbit.

Also, if those vehicles are made re-usable, the cost of launching satellites will further come down significantly.  Thus, the future re-usable launch vehicle concept along with air-breathing propulsion is an exciting candidate offering routine access to space at far lower cost.

Considering the strategic nature of air-breathing technology which has the potential to bring a significant shift in the launch vehicle design, worldwide efforts are on to develop the technology for air breathing engines. Ramjet, Scramjet and Dual Mode Ramjet (DMRJ) are the three concepts of air-breathing engines which are being developed by various space agencies.

A ramjet is a form of air-breathing jet engine that uses the vehicle’s forward motion to compress incoming air for combustion without a rotating compressor. Fuel is injected in the combustion chamber where it mixes with the hot compressed air and ignites. A ramjet-powered vehicle requires an assisted take-off like a rocket assist to accelerate it to a speed where it begins to produce thrust.


Ramjets work most efficiently at supersonic speeds around Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound) and can operate up to speeds of Mach 6.  However, the ramjet efficiency starts to drop when the vehicle reaches hypersonic speeds.

A scramjet engine is an improvement over the ramjet engine as it efficiently operates at hypersonic speeds and allows supersonic combustion. Thus it is known as Supersonic Combustion Ramjet, or Scramjet.

A dual mode ramjet (DMRJ) is a type of jet engine where a ramjet transforms into scramjet over Mach 4-8 range, which means it can efficiently operate both in subsonic and supersonic combustor modes.

An important development in ISRO’s Air Breathing Propulsion Project (ABPP) occurred on August 28, 2016, which was the successful flight testing of its Scramjet.

This first experimental mission of ISRO’s Scramjet Engine towards the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System was successfully conducted from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.

After a smooth countdown of 12 hours, the solid rocket booster carrying the Scramjet Engines lifted off at 0600 hrs (6:00 am) IST.  The important flight events, namely, burn out of booster rocket stage, ignition of second stage solid rocket, functioning of Scramjet engines for 5 seconds followed by burn out of the second stage took place exactly as planned.

After a flight of about 300 seconds, the vehicle touched down in the Bay of Bengal, approximately 320 km from Sriharikota. The vehicle was successfully tracked during its flight from the ground stations at Sriharikota.

With this flight, critical technologies such as ignition of air breathing engines at supersonic speed, holding the flame at supersonic speed, air intake mechanism and fuel injection systems have been successfully demonstrated. The Scramjet engine designed by ISRO uses Hydrogen as fuel and the Oxygen from the atmospheric air as the oxidiser. The August 28 test was the maiden short duration experimental test of ISRO’s Scramjet engine with a hypersonic flight at Mach 6. ISRO’s Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV), which is an advanced sounding rocket, was the solid rocket booster used for this recent test of Scramjet engines at supersonic conditions.  ATV carrying Scramjet engines weighed 3277 kg at lift-off.

ATV is a two stage spin stabilised launcher with identical solid motors (based on Rohini RH560 sounding rocket) as the first as well as the second stage (booster and sustainer).  The twin Scramjet engines were mounted on the back of the second stage. Once the second stage reached the desired conditions for engine “Start-up”, necessary actions were initiated to ignite the Scramjet engines and they functioned for about 5 seconds.  ATV flight operations were based on a pre-programmed sequence.

Some of the technological challenges handled by ISRO during the development of Scramjet engine include the design and development of Hypersonic engine air intake, the supersonic combustor, development of materials withstanding very high temperatures, computational tools to simulate hypersonic flow, ensuring performance and operability of the engine across a wide range of flight speeds, proper thermal management and ground testing of the engines.

India is the fourth country to demonstrate the flight testing of a Scramjet Engine.


Offline vyoma

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #28 on: 08/31/2016 03:41 AM »
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kanpur/Atomiser-designed-by-institute-is-advanced-/articleshow/53925548.cms

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IIT-Kanpur, senior professor of aerospace engineering department, Prof DP Mishra was equally delighted for the fact that eight years ago he had worked on the design of the atomizer which is an essential component of scramjet engine.

After successful testing of the atomizer by Prof Mishra in his combustion lab in IIT-Kanpur, it was later handed over to ISRO for further use. It was in the year 2006 that Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre division of ISRO had approached Prof Mishra for developing the design and later conducting successful test of the atomizer.

"The project took two years to complete as it was started on February 14, 2006 and completed on February 13, 2008. It was between this period that we had been successful in designing a new atomizer and further conducted its successful lab tests. Thereafter, the atomizer was handed over to ISRO", informed Prof Mishra while talking to TOI.

Explaining an atomizer, Prof Mishra said, "It forms an important component of scramjet engine to provide it fuel for combustion purpose. But the atomizer designed by us was an advanced one, different from the traditional atomizers used in aeroplanes.

Offline tappa

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #29 on: 08/31/2016 05:02 AM »
Why does it take do long for the test to happen after technologies were developed? Is it budgetary constraints?

Offline cave_dweller

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #30 on: 10/05/2016 10:38 PM »
Why does it take do long for the test to happen after technologies were developed? Is it budgetary constraints?

Manufacturing limitations. Realizing technologies into usable form requires very very high precision engineering/manufacturing, advanced metallurgy, transport infrastructure for both raw materials and finished products, intensive capital investments and focus on purpose while facing the above challenges listed.

India doesn't have the benefit of fully convertible currency. Even if it did, there isn't a lot of demand internationally for Indian Rupee or Indian Rupee backed debt. At least not enough to be able to sustain the kind of development needed to catch up to 30-40yrs of advanced development.

India has very low debt to GDP ratio. This is a very good thing. However the drawback is time to realization is increased. But this is only a drawback if you compare India to other countries that have amassed significant national debt in pursuit of "development".

India is attempting an unprecedented balancing act in realizing technologies while staying out of massive debt.
Also understand that patience works out better in the long term since lengthened development programs will allow for avoiding mistakes experienced by others and evolving into state of art more easily rather than making abrupt changes.
 
It simply is going to take a while for India. If you look at China, they too lagged for a very long while until their economy hit the stride and were able to develop the required economic, capital and technological infrastructure!



 

Offline sanman

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Re: ISRO Air Breathing Propulsion developments
« Reply #31 on: 10/06/2016 01:17 AM »
Well, there's supposed to be another hypersonic test in December 2016 (another couple of months) carried out by India's DRDO (Defense Research & Development Organization) not ISRO, and the vehicle is called HSTDV (HyperSonic Technology Demonstration Vehicle).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypersonic_Technology_Demonstrator_Vehicle

So I think it's supposed to be roughly like the X-51 test by USAF/DARPA.

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