Author Topic: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra  (Read 35015 times)

Offline Ares67

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It was Challenger’s eighth journey into space, America’s 50th manned spaceflight… and it was a real struggle this time. It was a mission of highly advanced astronomical observations, the first pallet-only Spacelab, but it will always be remembered as the mission that nearly set a new trans-Atlantic crossing record – by coming close to an emergency landing at Zaragoza, Spain. Finally getting away after experiencing an RSLS abort two weeks earlier, Challenger suffered an engine shutdown midway during ascent. In what was called an Abort to Orbit (ATO) the Space Shuttle managed to reach orbit on only two engines. And the struggle continued as technical difficulties led to a shaky start of Spacelab science operations. In the end mission 51-F achieved most of its science goals and proved the Space Shuttle was ready for astronomical observations of Halley’s Comet in 1986.

And while NASA was solving problems during STS 51-F, a crew member for another flight planned in 1986 was selected. Her name: Christa McAuliffe, a high school teacher from Concord, New Hampshire…

*   *   *   *   *   *   * 

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #1 on: 01/28/2012 06:03 PM »

Offline Ares67

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #2 on: 01/28/2012 06:05 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #3 on: 01/28/2012 06:07 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #4 on: 01/28/2012 06:09 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #5 on: 01/28/2012 06:11 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #6 on: 01/28/2012 06:14 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #7 on: 01/28/2012 06:17 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #8 on: 01/28/2012 06:18 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #9 on: 01/28/2012 06:21 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #10 on: 01/28/2012 06:24 PM »
June 20: A rubber-like material found in Challenger's liquid hydrogen system earlier this month has NASA officials wondering where it came from and workers racing to clean it up. Jim Harrington, NASA's flow director for the shuttle program, said he hopes the material can be cleaned out of Challenger by June 21 so it can make its June 23 rollover to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The black, crumbling material was discovered in early June when workers were checking a valve that connects the orbiter with the external tank, according to Warren Wiley, NASA's chief of the Main Propulsion and Fuel Cell Branch. Puzzling NASA officials is that the substance they've found apparently is foreign to the shuttle program, Wiley said. They are investigating whether it comes from KSC contractors or manufacturers, he said. (TODAY, Jun. 21, 1985)

July 2: Launch preparation employees will work this Independence Day to avoid any delay in the planned July 12 launch of Challenger, Kennedy Space Center spokesmen said. July 4 was to be a holiday for workers, but a slowdown in preparing Challenger prompted the need for an extra workday, spokesman George Diller said. A day was lost when Challenger's rollover from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building was delayed so workers could clean up a substance contaminating the orbiter's hydrogen system. At a press conference following the "smooth" launch countdown demonstration, Mission Commander Gordon Fullerton said different members of the crew would drink both Coke and Pepsi from each company's new beverage dispensing systems to see how well the cans work. Other crewmembers include: payload specialists Loren Acton and John-David Bartoe, mission specialists Story Musgrave, Anthony England and Karl Henize and pilot Roy Bridges. (TODAY, Jul. 3, 1985)
« Last Edit: 01/28/2012 07:55 PM by Ares67 »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #11 on: 01/28/2012 06:30 PM »
July 4: The same substance that protects Kennedy Space Center rocket gantries from corrosion will protect the inside of America's symbol of freedom, the Statue of Liberty, which is undergoing two years of refurbishing in New York City Harbor. Known as IC-Zinc 531, the product was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland by NASA scientist John Schutt, who began working on his anti-corrosive primer coating in 1968, NASA officials said. (TODAY, Jul. 4, 1985)

Challenger's solid rocket boosters were tested as crews worked through Independence Day to avoid delaying a launch scheduled for July 12, NASA officials said. In the morning, workers completed loading liquid propellant. One of the time-consuming problems encountered was a rubber substance contaminating Challenger's liquid hydrogen system; workers had to remove and clean portions of the system. (TODAY, Jul. 5, 1985)

July 7: "All the experiments are ready to go," said Jim Ball, a Kennedy Space Center spokesman, speaking of those experiments slated to be carried aboard Challenger when the shuttle program's 19th mission is launched July 12. (THE ORLANDO SENTINEL, Jul. 8, 1985)

July 9: Challenger's Mission 51-F crew arrived at KSC at 4:45 p.m. aboard four T-38 jet trainers and a Shuttle Training Aircraft. Smiling and relaxed, crewmembers greeted families and then briefly posed for photographers. "This crew is really ready to go," said Gordon Fullerton, the commander. "We're ready to do it on the first try, if possible." KSC officials say they do not foresee any problems with July 12's scheduled 4:30 p.m. liftoff. (TODAY, Jul. 10, 1985)

July 10: NASA and Air Force safety officials expressed concern that Challenger's "scheduled launch window - 75 minutes beginning at 4:30 p.m. [July 12] - will clash with prime 'weekend pilot' flying time and jeopardize the launch area. The launch will be the program's only late afternoon launch, said NASA spokesman Jim Mizell. "And that's just to meet the requirements of the scientific payload - we don't necessarily like to launch then." (TODAY, Jul. 11, 1985)

July 11: Overcast skies and a 40 percent chance of thunderstorms were predicted for launch afternoon - July 12 - with winds from the south at 5 to 10 mph, according to National Weather Service spokesman Bob Chase at Daytona Beach, Florida. (TODAY, Jul. 12, 1985)

Lt. Scott Funk, Air Force weather forecaster, said a "very good weather picture" was shaping up, and that Challenger should be able to wait out a fast-passing shower if one develops. The forecast is for a 40 percent chance of rain. "Ail systems look good," for the 4:30 launch of Mission 51-F, said Jesse Moore, NASA shuttle boss. "We're expecting some excellent science return from this mission." He said a two-hour extension of launch time could be stretched to three by sacrificing some science requirements. (THE ORLANDO SENTINEL, Jul. 12, 1985)
« Last Edit: 01/28/2012 07:56 PM by Ares67 »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #12 on: 01/28/2012 06:34 PM »
Friday, July 12, 1985 – Voice of America live coverage of the first launch attempt


Frank Waters (?) (VOA/Washington): The flight of Challenger – The Voice of America is standing by to bring you coverage of the launch of the next U.S. space shuttle mission, the flight of Challenger, carrying the Spacelab 2, the space laboratory designed and developed by the European Space Agency to conduct experiments in space while on the space mission. This is a very in-depth scientific mission by the Space Shuttle Challenger, in fact a quote from one U.S. space official saying: “This is going to be the most ambitious scientific project ever put on a Space Shuttle Mission perhaps ever done in this mode.”

This will be the 19th flight of the Space Shuttle and the Challenger is going up again. It’s been up several times. Launch is scheduled for under fifteen minutes from now, at 20:30 GMT. And right now it happens to be 20:16 GMT, that’s 4:16 in the afternoon EDT, 4:16 pm here on the east coast of the United States, a rare afternoon launch. We don’t have too many of these scheduled going off in the afternoon. And one danger from that is the fact that afternoon thunderstorms are liable to come in to the southern Florida area, perhaps postponing the launch. However today we have a two-hour launch window, meaning at any time after 20:30 GMT we have two hours to get this bird up into the air. While we are here with you talking about the launch we might mention the landing, which is coming at Edwards Air Force Base in California one week from today. It’s a seven-day mission and the Space Shuttle will be coming down next Friday, only an hour earlier than it is going to launch today. But more of that later through the week.

The Space Shuttle is carrying a seven-man crew and is going to be up for seven days. A very ambitious project: 13 experiments are on tap, 11 of those have been developed here in the United States and two developed in Britain. They are going to be studying the Milky Way, the sun, looking out into the galaxy to try to find out more information about the stars. And there are some other experiments on plants and experiments on how astronauts are affected within space.

The weather is looking fairly good at Cape Canaveral, at the Kennedy Space Center. We want to get the report from right on the scene, so we are going to be switching to VOA’s Alan Silverman right there at the Kennedy Space Center. And of course, Alan, a couple of important questions right at the top: Have any major problems developed within the last few hours and is the weather going to co-operate?

Alan Silverman (VOA/KSC): Well, Frank, the answer to both questions is “yes”. No major problems; however there have been a few minor concerns, minor questions that have come up during the course of the countdown. The sort of events that NASA’s procedures are designed to handle. And so nothing that has delayed the countdown to this point; in fact it has been extremely smooth. And of course as far as the weather is concerned: This is the weather that Florida is famous for. It’s warm, it’s in I’d say the very high 20’s, perhaps low 30’s Celsius with a breeze coming in off the ocean. There are clouds directly over where we are sitting, at the press site, which is about 4 1/2 kilometers away from the launch pad. But the pad itself, launch pad 39A, right at the Atlantic Ocean coastline is under clear blue skies. And in fact the breeze seems to be coming in the direction from the east towards us, so right now the weather seems to be staying just the way it is. And right now everything looks solid; looks go for a launch just about 11 minutes from now. Incidentally the clocks are stopped; we are in a planned 10-minute hold. We have just about two minutes left of this planned 10-minute hold and then we’ll be going into the final nine minutes of the countdown.

Waters: We have some heavy scientific experiments scheduled for this next week, and I guess we ought to mention them briefly before we get this launch underway. But maybe first we should get into this little issue of the “Cola War”.

Silverman: Well, in fact, when you mention 13 experiments, it seems that the 14th is the one that has attracted so much attention here at Kennedy Space Center over the last couple of days. And that is the Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Technology Experiment. Both Coca Cola and Pepsi have at their own initiative and their own expense designed containers in order to bring carbonated beverages into space. And again, apparently at their own initiative, each company decided that it would be nice that the astronauts have some soda to drink. And they suggested this idea to NASA officials, who said that if the containers met the very stringent safety standards for anything that goes into space that it would be considered, and certainly it has been. So now we have Coke and Pepsi onboard Challenger and ready to go into space. But let’s talk about some of the more serious experiments. And with me here at the Kennedy Space Center is Andrea Shea of the NASA Information Center. Before we do that, let’s listen to Launch Control…

PAO: This is Shuttle Launch Control at T-9 minutes and holding. And as we are coming out of this hold we have received a final go for launch from the Superintendant of Range Operations. In the last few minutes the NASA Test Director has completed his poll of the various test conductors, including those responsible for the vehicle, the spacecraft, the range, MILA, Mission Control, and has verified that we will be ready to come out of this hold, Commander Fullerton and Pilot Bridges also reported they were go to resume the count, go for launch. And a final okay has been given by Launch Director Bob Sieck.

Silverman: So there is the word from Jim Ball in Mission Control in the Launch Control Center that once we come out of the hold, which will be a little less than 15 seconds from now, the countdown should be proceeding smoothly. Andrea Shea of the National… the NASA Public Information Office is here, and…

PAO: … ten seconds away from coming out of this hold…

Silverman: Well, let’s listen for the countdown to start again and then we’ll talk again about the scientific experiments.

PAO: We are at T-9 minutes and counting and the Ground Launch Sequencer has been initiated.

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #13 on: 01/28/2012 06:36 PM »
Silverman: Andrea, I’d like to take advantage of your expertise before we talk about the experiments. Jim Ball just mentioned the Ground Launch Sequencer. What is its job, what is involved at this point now in the countdown?

Andrea Shea (NASA/KSC): Well the Ground Launch Sequencer is the master computer program running in the integration console that’s located right there in the firing room. It takes over command of the remaining events throughout the countdown, as well as monitoring the response and status of other vehicle systems. At T-7 minutes and 30 seconds the Orbiter Access Arm will be retracted and of course the Ground Launch Sequencer will be monitoring all that activity.

Silverman: Now, at this point we might add all of this is taking place in the Launch Control Center which is a 4-story tall white concrete-and-steel building that is just to the left of us. It stands alongside the very tall, the 53-story tall Vehicle Assembly Building. And inside that building are the firing rooms where there are, I guess, about 200 people sitting at computer consoles?

Shea: Yes, yes, each one of them with a predetermined job to do. They are all monitoring at their own console, keeping a close watch on the various systems they are responsible for. And for those of you, naturally, who cannot be here today, we are watching many of the folks who are closely involved with today’s particular launch being escorted to the rooftop of the firing room, Launch Control Center, where they’ll be taking a bird’s eye view of today’s launch.

Silverman: Just heard Jim Ball in the Launch Control Center say that the retraction of the walkway, the Orbiter Access Arm, has begun. So at this point the shuttle… well, it’s not completely on its own, it’s still on ground power but now it becomes… if they had to get out quickly it becomes something that could be ticklish. But I understand that that Orbiter Access Arm can be re-extended very rapidly.

Shea: Yes, it need be. And of course you were just mentioning that we were still on ground power. Pilot Roy Bridges will soon be throwing the cockpit switches that will start up the Auxiliary Power Units. And at that point they will be on their own essentially.

Silverman: And again we are hearing that all systems are go. There are several events that do take place in these last few minutes of the countdown that I think will be worth our while to just go over, because it does happen so quickly once it begins. We only have about 6 1/2 minutes before this scheduled lift-off. Again, the weather is still looking beautiful. A few wispy clouds have moved in over the Atlantic, but certainly nothing that I would call a rain cloud at this point.

Shea: No, not at all. In fact there is a little bit of a haze coming in off the Atlantic Ocean, but nothing that would preclude a launch, certainly.

Silverman: One of the, I think, advantages of launching at this time… There’ve been some jokes here at Kennedy Space Center about how did NASA pick this time – the afternoon launch? I do want to ask you about that. But I think one of the advantages of that typically we’ve had to look at the sun, at the rising sun out of the east, as we watched the shuttle. And today it’s a beautiful view, there should be some spectacular photography and television pictures of this launch as it takes place, because it will be going into a very clear blue sky without the bright sun.

Shea: Certainly providing a wonderful contrast.

Silverman: But the time of the launch, this late afternoon launch, was chosen because of some of the scientific payloads.

Shea: That’s correct. This particular mission will have the orbiter circling the earth at an inclination of 49.5 degrees. Normally we launch at an inclination of 28.5 degrees. Of course this is because of the particular experiments that we have onboard today.

Silverman: That inclination, I might add, that means it will go as far north as 49.5 degrees north latitude and as far south, below the equator, as 49.5 degrees south latitude, which means that during the seven-day mission Challenger and its seven-men crew will be passing over more than 80 percent of the world’s populated land area. And there will be many opportunities in many parts of the world for you to view the shuttle going overhead. It will look pretty much like a satellite. It is a satellite. It will look like a dot of light going across the sky. And during the next week we will be giving you times that you can look in the sky. It has to be the night sky of course to see the shuttle go overhead. If you have clear weather you may be able to track Challenger as this Spacelab 2 mission gets underway. Very close now to lift-off. We have 4 1/2 minutes, coming up on 4 1/2 minutes in the countdown. And again, the events that are going to be starting to happen very rapidly involve computers, but they also involve the people there in the Launch Control Center. Andrea, there are certain go/no go-decisions that are made by people, not just by the computers, right?

Shea: Yes, correct. The test support team members verify that they are go for launch. The test conductor will conduct a poll of all the launch team members seated at those consoles. And as they are polled, they will either give a go or a no go for launch.

Silverman: I think we also should mention, Frank, when you started the program you asked about problems. There was one that was indicated about an hour and a half ago. There was talk about the gimbal actuator on one of the OMS pods. And Andrea I’d like you to translate OMS pods into English from NASAese for us. 

Shea: Okay, the OMS pods, very simply, is the Orbital Maneuvering System. And it’s composed of thrusters that insert the orbiter into its orbit, also help maneuver the orbiter once it is in orbit, and then again assists the orbiter in reinserting back into the earth atmosphere at the completion of the mission.

Silverman: This is something that I’ve heard astronauts refer to, that apparently those OMS rocket engines… those Orbital Maneuvering System engines are quite powerful. And when they are fired, they feel it inside the shuttle. I’ve heard the description of it being liked an elevator jolting rather suddenly, that it is powerful enough to know, not just a slight nudge. They really can affect the orbital position and the orbital speed.

Shea: And wouldn’t you like to be there experiencing it for yourself?

Silverman: Oh, that’s a dream that I hope that I someday will be able to approach. Perhaps my children, perhaps my ten-year old daughter and my five-year old son will be able to realize that.

Shea: And those of the listeners out there.

Waters: This is Frank Waters in Washington again. We are in the process in the United States of selecting the first teacher to go into space, right? I wonder who is going to be the first reporter.

Silverman: Yes. In fact I believe in the next day or so the main teacher and the backup teacher are going to be announced at Houston. I believe this is going to take place during this flight.

Shea: That is going to be good news, I’m sure.

Silverman: As far as the first reporter in space I will fight anybody to get to the front of the line. But I am sure that NASA will make the correct selection and I’ll get my application in. Meantime were are coming up on two minutes before the launch as Jim Ball mentioned a moment ago. The shuttle is now on its own power. At the top of the bullet-shaped external tank there is what we sometimes refer to as the beanie cap. That’s being retracted right now. Andrea, what does that do, that liquid oxygen… ah, it’s a gaseous oxygen vent arm rather, right?

Shea: Yes, and it makes certain that the external tank is being constantly replenished with the fuel needed. And once we remove that beanie cap it means we have reached 100 percent… of course we’ve reached 100 percent capacity, fuel capacity earlier on. But that just ensures that it’s topped off constantly, to keep it at an exact level. Now it’s being removed and that means… well, let’s see, we are configuring for lift-off. Essentially that what we are down to…

Silverman: Very, very close. We are less than a minute and a half away from lift-off. In this next minute and a half many events happen there at the launch pad. The 100-ton shuttle orbiter, which is about the size of a DC-9 jetliner, with its External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters, about the size of an 18-story building… let’s listen to the time… exactly one minute to go before the launch of flight 51-F and Challenger. We’ll see that 18-story building-sized spacecraft leap off the launch pad. A next major step is going to be occurring in about 15 seconds, when the onboard computers take over the control of the launch at T-31 seconds. That’s a milestone to listen for; let’s listen to Jim Ball in the Launch Control Center…

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #14 on: 01/28/2012 06:42 PM »
PAO: …T-34 seconds… we have a go for auto-sequence start. Challenger’s computers have primary control of critical vehicle functions. The Ground Launch Sequencer will now serve in a support mode. T-20 seconds and counting…

Silverman: We are within fifteen seconds of the launch and are listening to Jim Ball at the Launch Control Center…

PAO: …T-16 seconds, the computers have armed the SRB ignition, hold down posts and T-Zero umbilical. T-10… 9... 8… 7… 6... 5… 4… 3… 2… we have an RSLS abort. We have an abort.

Shea: We have an abort.

Silverman: Alright, we have an abort of this launch.

PAO: GLS saving is in progress at this time.

Silverman: The GLS Ground Launch Sequencer system is trying to make sure that all systems…

LCC: CDR GPC computer mode 5 switch to off.

Silverman: Okay, the Launch Control Center and the people here at NASA…

PAO: We have an abort; we have an abort of this launch attempt…

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #15 on: 01/28/2012 06:51 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #16 on: 01/28/2012 06:56 PM »

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #17 on: 01/28/2012 07:00 PM »
Silverman: Okay, the engines had fired. There is a cloud of steam and smoke that is just beginning to rise around the launch pad that we can see. Andrea, I want to ask you, from what we just saw: We heard the roar of the engines for one moment, I saw a bright flash. And I am used to from the launches I’ve seen before, I am used to that bright flash taking place when the boosters fire, rather than when the main engines go off…

Shea: Well, the main engines go off before the boosters go, because if the boosters went first there is no way to shut them down.

Silverman: The APUs, the Auxiliary Power Units are being shut down. There is a term that Jim just mentioned in the Launch Control Center – an RSLS abort. I am looking for that acronym…

PAO: No indications at this time precisely why we had this abort of this afternoon’s launch attempt. We have had a Redundant Set Launch Sequencer cut-off.

Waters: Alan, that might be wrong, but there appears to be some leakage…

Silverman: Frank, stand by for just a moment. We would like to hear what they are saying in the Launch Control Center…

PAO: … The Orbiter Access Arm has been retracted back into place against the white room. It is locked in place. 

Silverman: That is the walkway through that the astronauts will leave the shuttle hatch… This is where the systems and backups and double checks and procedures really pay off, because although the NASA control and launch teams don’t want this sort of thing to happen, they practice them and rehearse them and plan for them. So although it’s a great dramatic event, seeing the flash of light and the puff of smoke…

PAO: … are preliminary. The systems were saved…

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #18 on: 01/28/2012 07:05 PM »
Shea: This is the second launch abort that we have had within the past year. Last summer I believe it was mission 41-D we had a launch abort at the pad when we reached the T-0 mark at that point as well.

Silverman: And in both cases, I might add, the systems did work. The boosters did not fire. The shuttle is still sitting there. Ah, right now the procedures are being followed to make sure that the entire shuttle and launch pad is saved. Remember that is a fully fueled vehicle. There are not only the rocket fuels and the fuel in the Solid Rocket Boosters. But there are also many what they call pyro devices, pyrotechnic devices on the hold-down bolts…

PAO: … The computers aboard orbiter Challenger sensed that there was something wrong and commanded a shutdown of the three main engines. That automatic sequence, which controls the launch countdown between T-31 seconds all the way through main engine start, terminated this afternoon’s launch attempt.

Silverman: To understand why computers are needed – these decisions in order to safely stop the launch had to take place within seconds from the time that the main engines started.

(…)

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Re: Challenger STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) / Per ardua ad astra
« Reply #19 on: 01/28/2012 07:11 PM »
Silverman: And what we missed at the beginning of Jim Ball’s comments from Launch Control Center was that all indications are at this point that it is a save condition at the launch pad. But again as you hear… okay, the water has been shut off… And again, these procedures… the entire shuttle had been configured for launch, it was ready to fly, and so all of the hundreds of switch settings have to be readjusted to make sure that it is in a save condition.

PAO: … there are no hazards in terms of fire or hazardous gases at the launch pad. The vehicle is safe, the crew is safe, and all procedures are being followed normal to back away from this launch attempt which was aborted at approximately T-3 or 4 seconds. No reason yet as to what caused that. It was directed by the Challenger’s onboard set of redundant computers…

Shea: It looks like that throughout the entire evening tonight, all night long launch team members will be analyzing the data that they were able to pull from their computers to determine what caused today’s abort.

Silverman: In fact, that’s something I wanted to ask you: What’s next? Now that we know the crew is save and we’ll be standing by of course to see them come out of the shuttle and go safely away, but now we have, as Jim has been describing it, we have to back away from this launch. So I would imagine that the procedures are now set in order to determine exactly what happened and try to prevent it from happening again.

Shea: Exactly, depending on whether or not the plan to launch again tomorrow, of course depending on what caused the abort of the attempt today... If it appears that it’s going to be longer than a day away, they will of course empty the tanks, with all the gallons of propellants onboard.

Silverman:  And that includes not only the main tanks, the giant external fuel tank, but also, we were talking about the OMS, the Orbital Maneuvering System engines.

Shea: That’s correct. The hydrazine fuels that are pumped onboard to actuate all the onboard systems…

Silverman: And with that material, it seems as though spaceflight, although we take much of it – the drama and the excitement of it – for granted nowadays, there are still some dangerous and tricky materials to handle. And that is one of them.

Shea: Absolutely.

Silverman: Let’s listen to Launch Control Center…

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