Author Topic: NASA - Juno - Updates  (Read 175491 times)

Offline mheney

  • The Next Man on the Moon
  • Global Moderator
  • Full Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 779
  • Silver Spring, MD
  • Liked: 378
  • Likes Given: 200
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #560 on: 12/05/2017 07:43 PM »
Agreed.  And it seems to me that this is sort of a schizophrenic situation.

One the one hand, Juno's primary mission is to fly through Jupiter's gravity field on extremely elliptical orbits, thus allowing the perturbations of that orbit to help us define and map Jupiter's gravity field.  From a detailed analysis of these perturbations and the resulting insight into the gravity field, we're supposed to be able to much more closely model our view of Jupiter's interior.

On the other hand, the trajectory is being perturbed from its projected path, so there must be some mysterious, extra-physical force pushing at it.

Umm... if our models were perfect and there were no unpredicted perturbations, wouldn't that mean that we had learned nothing from this mission?

Seeing perturbations that are not what you expected just means the nature of what you are observing doesn't match your previous theories.  It doesn't necessarily mean that we are suddenly observing New Physics... :o

That sounds a bit close minded on the topic if you donít mind me saying.

Actually, it sounds like Occam's Razor to me.  And I wouldn't call saying something isn't necessarily the case close-minded.  It's a pretty reasonable statement.

Offline Star One

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 9809
  • UK
  • Liked: 1892
  • Likes Given: 183
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #561 on: 12/05/2017 07:46 PM »
Agreed.  And it seems to me that this is sort of a schizophrenic situation.

One the one hand, Juno's primary mission is to fly through Jupiter's gravity field on extremely elliptical orbits, thus allowing the perturbations of that orbit to help us define and map Jupiter's gravity field.  From a detailed analysis of these perturbations and the resulting insight into the gravity field, we're supposed to be able to much more closely model our view of Jupiter's interior.

On the other hand, the trajectory is being perturbed from its projected path, so there must be some mysterious, extra-physical force pushing at it.

Umm... if our models were perfect and there were no unpredicted perturbations, wouldn't that mean that we had learned nothing from this mission?

Seeing perturbations that are not what you expected just means the nature of what you are observing doesn't match your previous theories.  It doesn't necessarily mean that we are suddenly observing New Physics... :o

That sounds a bit close minded on the topic if you donít mind me saying.

Actually, it sounds like Occam's Razor to me.  And I wouldn't call saying something isn't necessarily the case close-minded.  It's a pretty reasonable statement.

I suppose you could say that but Iíd rather give them the benefit of the doubt.

Offline zubenelgenubi

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 1899
  • Arc to Arcturus, then Spike to Spica
  • Commonwealth of Virginia
  • Liked: 517
  • Likes Given: 1740
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #562 on: 12/21/2017 07:25 PM »
Juno perijove 10 was December 16.  The SWRI Juno web site https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/ has imagery from this encounter.
***

Also, dated December 11: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/news/juno-probes-depths-of-great-red-spot
NASA'S JUNO PROBES THE DEPTHS OF JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT

Fly into the Great Red Spot of Jupiter with NASAís Juno Mission



Data collected by NASA's Juno spacecraft during its first pass over Jupiter's Great Red Spot in July 2017 indicate that this iconic feature penetrates well below the clouds. Other revelations from the mission include that Jupiter has two previously uncharted radiation zones. The findings were announced Monday at the annual American Geophysical Union meeting in New Orleans.

"One of the most basic questions about Jupiter's Great Red Spot is: how deep are the roots?" said Scott Bolton, Juno's principal investigator from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. "Juno data indicate that the solar system's most famous storm is almost one-and-a-half Earths wide, and has roots that penetrate about 200 miles (300 kilometers) into the planet's atmosphere."

The science instrument responsible for this in-depth revelation was Juno's Microwave Radiometer (MWR). "Juno's Microwave Radiometer has the unique capability to peer deep below Jupiter's clouds," said Michael Janssen, Juno co-investigator from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "It is proving to be an excellent instrument to help us get to the bottom of what makes the Great Red Spot so great."

[Image here]

Winds around Jupiter's Great Red Spot are simulated in this JunoCam view that has been animated using a model of the winds there. The wind model, called a velocity field, was derived from data collected by NASA's Voyager spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes.

Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/Justin Cowart


Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a giant oval of crimson-colored clouds in Jupiter's southern hemisphere that race counterclockwise around the oval's perimeter with wind speeds greater than any storm on Earth. Measuring 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) in width as of April 3, 2017, the Great Red Spot is 1.3 times as wide as Earth.

"Juno found that the Great Red Spot's roots go 50 to 100 times deeper than Earth's oceans and are warmer at the base than they are at the top," said Andy Ingersoll, professor of planetary science at Caltech and a Juno co-investigator. "Winds are associated with differences in temperature, and the warmth of the spot's base explains the ferocious winds we see at the top of the atmosphere."

The future of the Great Red Spot is still very much up for debate. While the storm has been monitored since 1830, it has possibly existed for more than 350 years. In the 19th century, the Great Red Spot was well over two Earths wide. But in modern times, the Great Red Spot appears to be diminishing in size, as measured by Earth-based telescopes and spacecraft. At the time NASA's Voyagers 1 and 2 sped by Jupiter on their way to Saturn and beyond, in 1979, the Great Red Spot was twice Earth's diameter. Today, measurements by Earth-based telescopes indicate the oval that Juno flew over has diminished in width by one-third and height by one-eighth since Voyager times.

Juno also has detected a new radiation zone, just above the gas giant's atmosphere, near the equator. The zone includes energetic hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur ions moving at almost light speed.

"The closer you get to Jupiter, the weirder it gets," said Heidi Becker, Juno's radiation monitoring investigation lead at JPL. "We knew the radiation would probably surprise us, but we didn't think we'd find a new radiation zone that close to the planet. We only found it because Juno's unique orbit around Jupiter allows it to get really close to the cloud tops during science collection flybys, and we literally flew through it."

[Image here]

This figure gives a look down into Jupiter's Great Red Spot, using data from the microwave radiometer instrument onboard NASA's Juno spacecraft. Each of the instrument's six channels is sensitive to microwaves from different depths beneath the clouds.

Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI


The new zone was identified by the Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument (JEDI) investigation. The particles are believed to be derived from energetic neutral atoms (fast-moving ions with no electric charge) created in the gas around the Jupiter moons Io and Europa. The neutral atoms then become ions as their electrons are stripped away by interaction with the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.

Juno also found signatures of a high-energy heavy ion population within the inner edges of Jupiter's relativistic electron radiation belt -- a region dominated by electrons moving close to the speed of light. The signatures are observed during Juno's high-latitude encounters with the electron belt, in regions never explored by prior spacecraft. The origin and exact species of these particles is not yet understood. Juno's Stellar Reference Unit (SRU-1) star camera detects the signatures of this population as extremely high noise signatures in images collected by the mission's radiation monitoring investigation.

To date, Juno has completed eight science passes over Jupiter. Juno's ninth science pass will be on Dec. 16.

[Image here]

This graphic shows a new radiation zone Juno detected surrounding Jupiter, located just above the atmosphere near the equator. Also indicated are regions of high-energy, heavy ions Juno observed at high latitudes.

Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/JHUAPL


Juno launched on Aug. 5, 2011, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrived in orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016. During its mission of exploration, Juno soars low over the planet's cloud tops -- as close as about 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers). During these flybys, Juno is probing beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and studying its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere.

JPL manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. The Juno mission is part of the New Frontiers Program managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the Science Mission Directorate. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the spacecraft. JPL is a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California.

More information on the Juno mission is available at: https://www.nasa.gov/juno
« Last Edit: 12/21/2017 07:27 PM by zubenelgenubi »
Support your local planetarium!

Offline redliox

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 1964
  • Arizona USA
  • Liked: 397
  • Likes Given: 66
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #563 on: 01/31/2018 10:33 PM »
As far as currently known, the Juno mission is still scheduled to end this July?
"Let the trails lead where they may, I will follow."
-Tigatron

Offline Aragatz

  • Member
  • Posts: 60
  • France
  • Liked: 9
  • Likes Given: 0
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #564 on: 02/01/2018 09:00 AM »
It seems to me but I'm not sure, Juno's mission will end at 2021
« Last Edit: 02/01/2018 09:00 AM by Aragatz »

Online ccdengr

  • Full Member
  • *
  • Posts: 128
  • Liked: 66
  • Likes Given: 16
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #565 on: 02/01/2018 01:07 PM »
As far as currently known, the Juno mission is still scheduled to end this July?
The mission is almost certain to be extended past July 2018, but I couldn't find anything online discussing when the mission review was/will be held or what the outcome is/was.  There's an OPAG meeting in February and I expect it will be announced either then or at LPSC.

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-s-juno-mission-to-remain-in-current-orbit-at-jupiter
Quote
Juno will continue to operate within the current budget plan through July 2018, for a total of 12 science orbits. The team can then propose to extend the mission during the next science review cycle.
« Last Edit: 02/01/2018 01:09 PM by ccdengr »

Offline Star One

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 9809
  • UK
  • Liked: 1892
  • Likes Given: 183
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #566 on: 02/01/2018 03:39 PM »
In spite of the propulsion issues will Juno still be disposed of into Jupiterís atmosphere?

Online ccdengr

  • Full Member
  • *
  • Posts: 128
  • Liked: 66
  • Likes Given: 16
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #567 on: 02/01/2018 08:44 PM »
In spite of the propulsion issues will Juno still be disposed of into Jupiterís atmosphere?
Yes.  The biprop system isn't needed for that maneuver.

Offline Star One

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 9809
  • UK
  • Liked: 1892
  • Likes Given: 183
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #568 on: 02/01/2018 08:47 PM »
In spite of the propulsion issues will Juno still be disposed of into Jupiterís atmosphere?
Yes.  The biprop system isn't needed for that maneuver.

Thank you for the clarification.

Offline Chris Bergin

Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #569 on: 02/23/2018 04:21 PM »
FEATURE ARTICLE: Juno in good health; decision point nears on mission's end or extension -

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/02/juno-good-health-decision-point-missions-end-extension/

- By Chris Gebhardt
Includes NSF Renders by Nathan Koga

Offline redliox

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 1964
  • Arizona USA
  • Liked: 397
  • Likes Given: 66
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #570 on: 02/23/2018 05:31 PM »
FEATURE ARTICLE: Juno in good health; decision point nears on mission's end or extension -

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/02/juno-good-health-decision-point-missions-end-extension/

- By Chris Gebhardt
Includes NSF Renders by Nathan Koga

Loved it, and obviously strikes at the quandary of whether Juno can handle another round with Jupiter.  With Cassini gone, Juno's now our sole sentinel of the gas giants.

I emailed the team via the website, but the response given was vague and acknowledging just that a decision will be made eventually.  It felt like having a conversation with a Monolith.  Hopefully their secrets will be revealed well before July.

"Let the trails lead where they may, I will follow."
-Tigatron

Offline AegeanBlue

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 518
  • Raleigh
  • Liked: 131
  • Likes Given: 40
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #571 on: 02/23/2018 06:20 PM »
I remember another piece of science news that came out of Juno: it appears that Jupiter lacks a solid core. Before Juno insertion there was the theory that because of quantum effects the solid core could have been dissolved. My understanding from the news articles is that the no solid core model is most consistent with DSN tracking

Offline speedevil

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3191
  • Fife
  • Liked: 1631
  • Likes Given: 1958
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #572 on: 02/23/2018 06:58 PM »
I remember another piece of science news that came out of Juno: it appears that Jupiter lacks a solid core. Before Juno insertion there was the theory that because of quantum effects the solid core could have been dissolved. My understanding from the news articles is that the no solid core model is most consistent with DSN tracking

May interest.

At high pressures and temperatures, the solid core can pretty much dissolve in the atmosphere.

Offline Grandpa to Two

Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #573 on: 02/24/2018 01:39 AM »
FEATURE ARTICLE: Juno in good health; decision point nears on mission's end or extension -

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/02/juno-good-health-decision-point-missions-end-extension/

- By Chris Gebhardt
Includes NSF Renders by Nathan Koga
Very much enjoyed your article Chris! Nathan your renders of the orbits really added punch to my understanding of where Juno was supposed to be and where it ended up thanks to you as well. What I wonder is if in the plans to decide if and how Juno will proceed from here, did they consider starting the engine to see if they can place Juno into the originally planned  14 day elliptical orbit. One of the two plans under consideration is to start the engine to maneuver into Jupiterís atmosphere ending the program. In this case what would they have to loose in trying a much more pertinent orbit to continue studies.
"All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them" Galileo Galilei

Offline Star One

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 9809
  • UK
  • Liked: 1892
  • Likes Given: 183
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #574 on: 03/08/2018 08:54 AM »
NASA Juno finds Jupiter's Jet-Streams Are Unearthly

Data collected by NASA's Juno mission to Jupiter indicate that the atmospheric winds of the gas-giant planet run deep into its atmosphere and last longer than similar atmospheric processes found here on Earth. The findings will improve understanding of Jupiter's interior structure, core mass and, eventually, its origin.

Other Juno science results released today include that the massive cyclones that surround Jupiter's north and south poles are enduring atmospheric features and unlike anything else encountered in our solar system. The findings are part of a four-article collection on Juno science results being published in the March 8 edition of the journal Nature.

"These astonishing science results are yet another example of Jupiter's curve balls, and a testimony to the value of exploring the unknown from a new perspective with next-generation instruments.Juno's unique orbit and evolutionary high-precision radio science and infrared technologies enabled these paradigm-shifting discoveries," said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio. "Juno is only about one third the way through its primary mission, and already we are seeing the beginnings of a new Jupiter."



For hundreds of years, this gaseous giant planet appeared shrouded in colorful bands of clouds extending from dusk to dawn, referred to as zones and belts. The bands were thought to be an expression of Jovian weather, related to winds blowing eastward and westward at different speeds. This animation illustrates a recent discovery by Juno that demonstrates these east-west flows, also known as jet-streams penetrate deep into the planet's atmosphere, to a depth of about 1,900 miles (3,000 kilometers). Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The depth to which the roots of Jupiter's famous zones and belts extend has been a mystery for decades. Gravity measurements collected by Juno during its close flybys of the planet have now provided an answer.

"Juno's measurement of Jupiter's gravity field indicates a north-south asymmetry, similar to the asymmetry observed in its zones and belts," said Luciano Iess, Juno co-investigator from Sapienza University of Rome, and lead author on a Nature paper on Jupiter's gravity field.

On a gas planet, such an asymmetry can only come from flows deep within the planet; and on Jupiter, the visible eastward and westward jet streams are likewise asymmetric north and south. The deeper the jets, the more mass they contain, leading to a stronger signal expressed in the gravity field. Thus, the magnitude of the asymmetry in gravity determines how deep the jet streams extend.
"Galileo viewed the stripes on Jupiter more than 400 years ago," said Yohai Kaspi, Juno co-investigator from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel,and lead author of a Nature paper on Jupiter's deep weather layer. "Until now, we only had a superficial understanding of them and have been able to relate these stripes to cloud features along Jupiter's jets. Now, following the Juno gravity measurements, we know how deep the jets extend and what their structure is beneath the visible clouds. It's like going from a 2-D picture to a 3-D version in high definition."

The result was a surprise for the Juno science team because it indicated that the weather layer of Jupiter was more massive, extending much deeper than previously expected. The Jovian weather layer, from its very top to a depth of 1,900 miles (3,000 kilometers), contains about one percent of Jupiter's mass (about 3 Earth masses).

"By contrast, Earth's atmosphere is less than one millionth of the total mass of Earth," said Kaspi "The fact that Jupiter has such a massive region rotating in separate east-west bands is definitely a surprise."

The finding is important for understanding the nature and possible mechanisms driving these strong jet streams. In addition, the gravity signature of the jets is entangled with the gravity signal of Jupiter's core.

Another Juno result released today suggests that beneath the weather layer, the planet rotates nearly as a rigid body."This is really an amazing result, and future measurements by Juno will help us understand how the transition works between the weather layer and the rigid body below," said Tristan Guillot, a Juno co-investigator from the Universitť CŰte d'Azur, Nice, France, and lead author of the paper on Jupiter's deep interior. "Juno's discovery has implications for other worlds in our solar system and beyond. Our results imply that the outer differentially-rotating region should be at least three times deeper in Saturn and shallower in massive giant planets and brown dwarf stars."

A truly striking result released in the Nature papers is the beautiful new imagery of Jupiter's poles captured by Juno's Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument. Imaging in the infrared part of the spectrum, JIRAM captures images of light emerging from deep inside Jupiter equally well, night or day. JIRAM probes the weather layer down to 30 to 45 miles (50 to 70 kilometers) below Jupiter's cloud tops.

"Prior to Juno we did not know what the weather was like near Jupiter's poles. Now, we have been able to observe the polar weather up-close every two months," said Alberto Adriani, Juno co-investigator from the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Rome, and lead author of the paper. "Each one of the northern cyclones is almost as wide as the distance between Naples, Italy and New York City -- and the southern ones are even larger than that. They have very violent winds, reaching, in some cases, speeds as great as 220 mph (350 kph). Finally, and perhaps most remarkably, they are very close together and enduring. There is nothing else like it that we know of in the solar system."

Jupiter's poles are a stark contrast to the more familiar orange and white belts and zones encircling the planet at lower latitudes. Its north pole is dominated by a central cyclone surrounded by eight circumpolar cyclones with diameters ranging from 2,500 to 2,900 miles (4,000 to 4,600 kilometers) across. Jupiter's south pole also contains a central cyclone, but it is surrounded by five cyclones with diameters ranging from 3,500 to 4,300 miles (5,600 to 7,000 kilometers) in diameter. Almost all the polar cyclones, at both poles, are so densely packed that their spiral arms come in contact with adjacent cyclones. However, as tightly spaced as the cyclones are, they have remained distinct, with individual morphologies over the seven months of observations detailed in the paper.

"The question is, why do they not merge?" said Adriani. "We know with Cassini data that Saturn has a single cyclonic vortex at each pole. We are beginning to realize that not all gas giants are created equal."

Abstracts of the March 8 Juno papers can be found online:

The measurement of Jupiter's asymmetric gravity field:

http://nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature25776

Jupiter's atmospheric jet-streams extending thousands of kilometers deep:

http://nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature25793

A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter's deep interior:

http://nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature25775

Clusters of Cyclones Encircling Jupiter's Poles:

http://nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature25491

To date, Juno has completed 10 science passes over Jupiter and logged almost 122 million miles (200 million kilometers), since entering Jupiter's orbit on July 4, 2016. Juno's 11th science pass will be on April 1.


Offline Grandpa to Two

Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #575 on: 03/10/2018 09:50 PM »
post #574 by Star One could be, should be a front page article. Nice write up!
"All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them" Galileo Galilei

Offline Nomadd

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3364
  • Boca Chica, Texas
  • Liked: 6054
  • Likes Given: 361
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #576 on: 03/11/2018 05:46 AM »
post #574 by Star One could be, should be a front page article. Nice write up!
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7075

Offline eeergo

Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #577 on: 04/11/2018 08:37 AM »

Offline deruch

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2357
  • California
  • Liked: 1898
  • Likes Given: 4456
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #578 on: 04/11/2018 04:09 PM »
Awesome IR image of Io from JIRAM:


https://twitter.com/_RomanTkachenko/status/983762538776092673

Is it too early to plan my pumpkin carving for Halloween this year?
Shouldn't reality posts be in "Advanced concepts"?  --Nomadd

Offline Star One

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 9809
  • UK
  • Liked: 1892
  • Likes Given: 183
Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #579 on: 04/11/2018 05:09 PM »


Low 3-D Flyover of Jupiterís North Pole in Infrared



Jupiterís Dynamo
« Last Edit: 04/11/2018 05:12 PM by Star One »

Tags: Jupiter Juno JunoCam