Author Topic: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral  (Read 13012 times)

Offline faustod

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Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« on: 10/29/2008 06:12 am »
I search confirm that the following meteo satellites were all launched from CCAFS, performing dogleg manoeuvres to reach near polar orbit.

Tiros 9    - 22.01.1965 - inclination 96,4
Tiros 10  - 02.07.1965 - inclination 98,6
ESSA 1   - 03.02.1966 - inclination 97,9
ESSA 2   - 28.02.1966 - inclination 101
ESSA 9   - 26.02.1969 - inclination 101,8

Can anyone tell me if there were other sats launched from CCAFS to near polar orbit?
« Last Edit: 11/03/2008 04:55 pm by faustod »

Offline kevin-rf

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #1 on: 10/29/2008 11:18 am »
Were the early Transit launches from the cape to polar orbit? I've seen mention before of the thor from Transit 3A killing a cow in cuba. I assume that means it was dog legging south.
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Offline Hoonte

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #2 on: 10/29/2008 12:41 pm »
Were the early Transit launches from the cape to polar orbit? I've seen mention before of the thor from Transit 3A killing a cow in cuba. I assume that means it was dog legging south.

you seem to be right on the launch site as I quickle read through this article

http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/report/1991/6555th/6555c4-1.htm
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Offline kevin-rf

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #3 on: 10/29/2008 12:54 pm »
you seem to be right on the launch site as I quickle read through this article

http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/report/1991/6555th/6555c4-1.htm

But what was the target orbit?

With a failed launch you can nail cuba directly during a polar launch, or by decaying from almost any cape launched orbit. A failed launch does not mean it didn't make orbit, just put it in an unusable or unstable orbit.
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Offline Hoonte

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #4 on: 10/29/2008 02:38 pm »
1960 November 30 - Transit 3A.  Spacecraft: Transit. Mass: 91 kg (200 lb). Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Vehicle: Delta.
Destroyed by range safety; launched with Solrad 2. Thor shut down too early.
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Offline Blackstar

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #5 on: 10/29/2008 07:21 pm »
Solrad was actually the cover story.  This was also a top secret signals intelligence satellite named GRAB.  The Solrad part was legit--the spacecraft did carry instruments for studying the sun.

I heard a story that after the failure and the Cubans complaining about the dead cow, somebody painted the silhouette of a cow on the blockhouse at the launch pad, alongside the other Thor silhouettes.  But I've never seen an actual photo, so I don't know if the story is true.

Offline kevin-rf

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #6 on: 10/29/2008 10:06 pm »
Went digging through Jonathan's Space Report ( http://planet4589.org/space/logs/satcat.txt ) and it looks like all the cape launched Transits that made it to orbit did not go into polar orbit (mostly to 66 deg, but not polar).

Looks like the first polar orbit's transit was Transit VA-1 launched on 1962 Dec 19 from Vandenberg on a scout. My bad sorry for taking us off topic.
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Offline Proponent

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #7 on: 10/30/2008 05:40 pm »
What trajectories were flown to reach polar orbit from the Cape?  Fly southeasterly until you've cleared South America and then point southwest to cancel out the easterly component of velocity that you've picked up?  Would you loft more than usual to cover the distance to open water without accelerating to the east too much?

Offline dwmzmm

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #8 on: 11/03/2008 10:52 am »
Interesting!  Never heard of nor knew any launches from the Cape were polar orbits. 
Dave, NAR # 21853 SR.

Offline faustod

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #9 on: 11/03/2008 04:57 pm »
Now I believe that the five launches listed in the first post are the only Polar Launches from the Est Coast.

Offline jcm

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #10 on: 11/03/2008 08:46 pm »
What trajectories were flown to reach polar orbit from the Cape?  Fly southeasterly until you've cleared South America and then point southwest to cancel out the easterly component of velocity that you've picked up?  Would you loft more than usual to cover the distance to open water without accelerating to the east too much?

The Delta made two dogleg burns to send the payload over the equator at around 84W, 
the third stage yawed further and burned on southbound equator crossing.
ESSA 3 was the first West Coast Delta launch; ESSA 9 was the last Cape polar launch, when scheduling conflicts at Vandenberg prevented it going from there.

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Offline Jim

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #11 on: 11/03/2008 10:37 pm »
They required 3 stage Delta's vs the usual two stage on the west coast

Offline Proponent

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #12 on: 11/19/2008 04:54 pm »
I search confirm that the following meteo satellites were all launched from CCAFS, performing dogleg manoeuvres to reach near polar orbit.

Tiros 9    - 22.01.1965 - inclination 96,4
...

I have come across a blurb about the Tiros IX launch in the March 1965 issue of Astronautics & Aeronautics (pp. 93-4).  Flying southward along the Florida coast, it doglegged to the right twice and flew over both Cuba and Panama, west of the Canal Zone.  During coast prior to 3rd-stage ignition, the vehicle yawed left.  Orbital injection occurred 300 miles west of Quito.

The article states that "by timing discrete functions to occur at points where failure would not result in land impact, Delta engineers believe they reduced this possibility to less than 1 chance in 2000."  The article goes on to mention that although the trajectory was safe, NASA was hoping to accelerate the availability of West Coast facilities for polar launches.

Offline Art LeBrun

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #13 on: 11/19/2008 08:03 pm »
Some additional notes on planned Delta polar launches at AMR from
Douglas Report SM-45243 circa 1964. Orbits are 90 degree and 80
degree retrograde and prograde.

First stage yaw from 90-110 seconds for 90 degree orbit. No other yaw
times given for first stage or second stages.

For 90 degree and both 80 degree inclinations first stage and shroud impacts are in the Caribbean Sea.

For 90 and 80 retrograde second stage impact is South Pacific. For 80
prograde orbit second stage impact is Anarctica.
1958 launch vehicle highlights: Vanguard TV-4 and Atlas 12B

Offline Proponent

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #14 on: 11/19/2008 09:08 pm »
Some additional notes on planned Delta polar launches at AMR from
Douglas Report SM-45243 circa 1964.

Where do you find an old manufacturer's report like Douglas SM-45243?

Offline Art LeBrun

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #15 on: 11/19/2008 09:43 pm »
I do not recall exactly but space auctions such as Superior Regency
about 1996? and Robert Shaw 1993 and earlier provided me with
original publications or photocopies. I do not see these items anymore.
1958 launch vehicle highlights: Vanguard TV-4 and Atlas 12B

Offline Lars_J

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #16 on: 12/09/2008 12:19 am »
I seem to recall reading that early in the Shuttle program there were talks of launching the Shuttle in a polar orbit - Would that have been done from the east or west coast?

Offline fdasun

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #17 on: 12/09/2008 12:25 am »
No. Shuttle has never reached a polar orbit.
Atlantis, in STS-27, reached a 62' inclined orbit in Dec 1988. That was the record in SSP.

Offline Jim

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #18 on: 12/09/2008 01:07 am »
I seem to recall reading that early in the Shuttle program there were talks of launching the Shuttle in a polar orbit - Would that have been done from the east or west coast?

VAFB. There weren't "talks", there was a pad built, SLC-6

Offline TJL

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Re: Launches in polar orbit from Cape Canaveral
« Reply #19 on: 12/09/2008 01:31 am »
No. Shuttle has never reached a polar orbit.
Atlantis, in STS-27, reached a 62' inclined orbit in Dec 1988. That was the record in SSP.

It was actually STS-36 (Atlantis) that went into a 62 degree inclination.
STS-27 flew a 57 degree inclination.

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