Author Topic: Apollo 8  (Read 47649 times)

Online Jim Davis

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #80 on: 04/30/2018 01:48 am »
Putting reliability aside, turbopumps also increase the weight of the engine and weight limits on the Apollo missions were tight.

Turbopumps would indeed increase the weight of the engines but they would decrease the weight of the overall system since the propellant tanks would no longer have to withstand full combustion chamber pressure and more. The greater reliability of a pressure fed propulsion system is why such a system was chosen; the greater weight was accepted as the price for this greater reliability.

Offline catdlr

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #81 on: 11/15/2018 03:47 am »
NASA APOLLO 8 MANNED SPACE FLIGHT REPORT 1968 LUNAR MISSION 63124

PeriscopeFilm
Published on Nov 14, 2018

This is a 1960’s era, color film produced by NASA. It is an informational film called “Manned Space Flight Film Report”. It is about Apollo 8 (SA-503/CSM-103) on December 21, 1968, when Apollo launched for the moon. It opens with the image of a rocket on a launching pad, :25. Apollo 8 spaceship on the launch pad, :40. Astronauts getting their spacesuits checked by NASA engineers, 1:43. Frank Borman, commander is seen, 1:52. James A. Lovell is seen, command module pilot, 1:57. William A Anders, lunar module pilot, 2:00. Mission Objectives illustration, 2:37. Second primary objectives of mission, 2:56. NASA command center is shown, 3:25. Astronauts board the NASA transfer van, 3:52. Astronauts arrive at the rocket and enter “the white room”, 4:17. Engines of rocket are ignited, 4:55. Rocket lifts off, 5:21. Rocket soars into space, 6:07. Separation of rocket compartments begins, 6:48. Mission Control confirms second stage shutdown and separation, 5:13. Engineer works controls at Mission Control, 9:11. Illustrations of Apollo 8 over the moon, 9:40. Spacecraft separation illustrations, 9:55. Image of 70”, 2-way antennae used for communication between the spacecraft and Mission Control, 10:43. 85’ antennae receiver station on earth, 10:53. Spacecraft illustration with earth in background, 11:22. Internal view of spacecraft; astronauts are seen, 11:32. Astronauts in zero gravity, 11:50. Television transmission shows astronauts in capsule, 12:31. Images of earth from the spaceship, 13:19. Image of moon from capsule, 12:39. First video of the lunar surface with unaided eye, 14:54. In lunar orbit, the spacecraft takes video of the moon’s surface, 16:34. Huge lunar crater is photographed, 16:55. Earth is viewed from lunar orbit, 17:11. Astronauts prepare to return to earth, 17:30. Spacecraft illustrations, 18:50. Astronauts return in zero gravity, 19:15. Television broadcast of astronaut in spaceship, 19:48. Images of earth from spacecraft on return trip, 20:27. Illustration of capsule returning to earth, 21;09. Capsule lands in the ocean with rafts deployed, 21:17. Astronaut lifted from the sea in a net and into helicopter, 21:28. Helicopter lands on aircraft carrier, 21:33. Astronauts return to aircraft carrier and wave to crowd, 21:48. Astronauts give press conference, 22:05. Capsule is retrieved from ocean and put on carrier, 22:25.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYo90vqzfLI?t=001

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Offline JAFO

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #82 on: 11/15/2018 06:29 am »
On Dec. 20, 2018 Bill Anders and his wife Valerie will be at the San Diego Air & Space Museum to celebrate the the 50th Anniversary of Bill’s historic Apollo 8 mission in December 1968, the first manned flight to the moon. In addition to being the first flight to orbit the moon, Apollo 8 also resulted in the iconic “Earthrise," one  of the most historic photos ever taken.
http://sandiegoairandspace.org/calendar/event/apollo-8-50th-anniversary-celebration

« Last Edit: 11/15/2018 06:30 am by JAFO »
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Online Blackstar

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #83 on: 12/03/2018 09:58 pm »
http://www.thespacereview.com/article/3617/1

Spooky Apollo: Apollo 8 and the CIA
by Dwayne A. Day
Monday, December 3, 2018

In early December 1968, Time magazine ran a cover story titled “Race for the Moon” featuring an astronaut and cosmonaut sprinting towards the Moon. Just a few weeks later, Newsweek magazine featured a cover story about the Apollo 8 mission titled “Apollo Triumph.” But the editors had also created an alternative cover with the words “Apollo Tragedy” that, fortunately, was never used. What the two major news magazines reflected was both the belief that the United States and Russia were neck and neck in competition, and that the Apollo 8 mission was highly risky and could end tragically.

This December marks the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 8 mission around the Moon, and that event has been commemorated in many ways the past few months. It was a courageous effort by the Apollo 8 astronauts, but also a bold and risky decision by NASA officials to send them on that journey. Over the decades, many historians have focused on the decision to send Apollo 8 around the Moon. The two major drivers were the availability of the Lunar Module—which had fallen behind schedule—and unmanned Soviet space missions that were clearly tests of their circumlunar spacecraft, called Zond.

Online Kansan52

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #84 on: 12/03/2018 10:46 pm »
Earth Rising started Friday with the documentary, "First To The Moon" by Paul Hildebrandt. This showing was a nearly final cut but seemed finished and was wonderful. I was booed by the audience when I suggested shortened scenes of social unrest because it took away from the subject, Apollo 8. Paul was polite but I expected 5 or 6 minutes of gunships and riots will stay in the documentary.

Hildebrandt interviewed Borman, Anders, and Lovell then found material to compliment the information from the interviews. He was pleased that he was able to include newly scanned video from Apollo 8 films including the launch so all but two shots were from Apollo 8, not other flights.

A great watch but 2 hours. See if you can.

Saturday was the big event. Along with Jim Lovell (Apollo 8 & 13), there was astronauts Walt Cunningham (Apollo 7), Charlie Duke (Apollo 16 and the voice of CAPCOM on Apollo 11), Fred Haise (Apollo 13) and Harrison Schmitt (Apollo 17).

There were NASA mission control crew members Arnold Aldrich, Jerry Bostick, Charles Deiterich, Gerry Griffin, Charles Lewis, Glynn Lunney, William Moon, Frank Van Rensselaer and Milt Windler.

JPL engineer, Michael Staab (former Cosmosphere space camper 4 times and host of the Insight watch party Monday) and Robert Kurson, author of “Rocket Men: The Daring Odyssey of Apollo 8 and the Astronauts Who Made Man’s First Journey to the Moon” attended.

A Q&A led by the Cosmosphere President, Jim Remar, and Robert Kurson was the highlight with stories from everyone on the panel.

I was surprised that Sen. Moran and Rep. Marshall attended. Apparently they were showing off WSU aerospace endeavors and the Cosmosphere's STEM efforts to NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstein. Another big surprise. The speeches were fine but what you expected from those three. The Q&A was much more interesting.

It was two marvelous nights! Now back to the hum drum.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #85 on: 12/07/2018 02:35 pm »
December 07, 2018
MEDIA ADVISORY M18-183

NASA TV to Air ‘Spirit of Apollo’ Tribute from National Cathedral

This month marks the 50th anniversary of NASA’s Apollo 8 mission, which was the first to bring humans to another world as they orbited the Moon on Christmas Eve, 1968.

To commemorate this historic event in human spaceflight and NASA’s history, Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum will present “Spirit of Apollo,” a program celebrating the milestone Apollo 8 mission, which brought humanity together and pushed the limits of exploration. The event will take place at 8 p.m., Tuesday, Dec. 11, at Washington National Cathedral, 3101 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Washington.

While the event, which requires tickets, is sold out to the general public, it will air live on NASA Television and the agency’s website.

The evening’s program will include remarks by NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine and Apollo 8 astronaut James Lovell, as well as Ellen Stofan, the John and Adrienne Mars Director of the National Air and Space Museum. There also will be remarks by leaders from the National Cathedral and Episcopal Church, including the Most Rev. Michael Curry, who will discuss the spiritual meaning of exploration. In addition, the program will include video presentations and a choral performance recreating the Apollo 8 Christmas Eve broadcast, as well as a lighting of the National Cathedral and its space window.

Media who wish to attend the event must contact Alison Mitchell at [email protected] or 202-633-2376; or Amy Stamm at [email protected] or 202-633-2392.

To learn more about the Apollo 8 mission and hear the crew’s Christmas Eve message to the people of Earth, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/apollo_8.html

Offline Zipper730

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #86 on: 12/09/2018 12:20 am »
This is a great thread, remarkably detailed with great footage and pictures.  While seemingly unrelated and tangential, there's a forum I'm a member of called http://ww2aircraft.net , which I've affectionately taken to calling World War 2 Aircraft-n-Bacon because of the love of bacon on the forum (actually it seems almost everybody loves bacon -- even vegans and vegetarians have tried to find a suitable substitute). 

In addition to the like icon, which exists here: There's an icon which has two sizzling pieces of bacon, which is like the highest thumbs-up to the thread. 

This thread would have definitely been worthy of the bacon-icon :D

Since there exists no bacon icon on this forum, I can only do the second best thing

« Last Edit: 12/11/2018 05:56 am by Zipper730 »

Offline catdlr

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #87 on: 12/12/2018 12:13 am »
Watch The National Air And Space Museum Celebrate The 50th Anniversary Of Apollo 8 | LIVE | TIME

TIME
Streaming 8:00 pm EST December 11, 2018

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bItPk3PijpQ?t=001

« Last Edit: 12/12/2018 01:14 am by catdlr »
Tony De La Rosa

Offline catdlr

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #88 on: 12/21/2018 03:42 am »
Apollo 8 - 50th Anniversary Montage

NASA Goddard
Published on Dec 20, 2018

This video is a montage of NASA archival footage from the Apollo 8 mission.

Music: "People Can't Stop Chillin'" by Sports; used with permission.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1LZ0gPZf7nk?t=001

Tony De La Rosa

Offline catdlr

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #89 on: 12/21/2018 03:45 am »
Apollo 8 Manned Space Flight Film Report 1968 NASA; SA-503, CSM-103

Jeff Quitney
Published on Dec 20, 2018

A story of the first manned mission to leave Earth's orbit and orbit the moon. The 50th Anniversary of the Apollo 8 launch is on Friday, December 21, 2018.

Apollo 8, the second crewed mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first human-crewed spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth. The three-astronaut crew — Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell, and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders — became the first humans to travel beyond low Earth orbit, the first to see Earth as a whole planet, and then the first to directly see the far side of the Moon. The 1968 mission, the first crewed launch of a Saturn V rocket, was also the first crewed launch from the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, located adjacent to Cape Canaveral.

Originally planned as a second Lunar Module/Command Module test in an elliptical medium Earth orbit in early 1969, the mission profile was changed in August 1968 to a more ambitious Command Module-only lunar orbital flight to be flown in December, because the Lunar Module was not yet ready to make its first flight. This meant Borman's crew was scheduled to fly two to three months sooner than originally planned, leaving them a shorter time for training and preparation, thus placing more demands than usual on their time and discipline.

Apollo 8 took three days to travel to the Moon. It orbited ten times over the course of 20 hours, during which the crew made a Christmas Eve television broadcast in which they read the first 10 verses from the Book of Genesis. At the time, the broadcast was the most watched TV program ever. Apollo 8's successful mission paved the way for Apollo 11 to fulfill U.S. President John F. Kennedy's goal of landing a man on the Moon before the end of the 1960s. The Apollo 8 astronauts returned to Earth on December 27, 1968, when their spacecraft splashed down in the Northern Pacific Ocean.

On September 20, 1967, NASA adopted a seven-step plan for Apollo missions, with the final step being a Moon landing. Apollo 4 and Apollo 6 were "A" missions, tests of the Saturn V launch vehicle using an unmanned Block I production model of the command and service module (CSM) in Earth orbit. Apollo 5 was a "B" mission, a test of the LM in Earth orbit. Apollo 7, scheduled for October 1968, would be a "C" mission, a manned Earth-orbit flight of the CSM. Further missions depended on the readiness of the LM. It had been decided as early as May 1967 that there would be at least four additional missions. Apollo 8 was planned as the "D" mission, a test of the LM in a low Earth orbit in December 1968 by James McDivitt, David Scott, and Russell Schweickart, while Borman's crew would fly the "E" mission, a more rigorous LM test in an elliptical medium Earth orbit as Apollo 9, in early 1969. The "F" Mission would test the CSM and LM in lunar orbit, and the "G" mission would be the finale, the Moon landing.

But the production of the LM fell behind schedule, and when Apollo 8's LM arrived at Cape Canaveral in June 1968, significant defects were discovered, leading Grumman, the lead contractor for the LM, to predict that the first mission-ready LM would not be ready until at least February 1969. This would mean delaying the "D" and subsequent missions, endangering the program's goal of a lunar landing before the end of 1969.

George Low, the Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, proposed a solution in August to keep the program on track despite the LM delay. Since the Command/Service Module (CSM) would be ready three months before the Lunar Module, a CSM-only mission could be flown in December 1968. Instead of just repeating the "C" mission flight of Apollo 7, this CSM could be sent all the way to the Moon, with the possibility of entering a lunar orbit. The new mission would also allow NASA to test lunar landing procedures that would otherwise have to wait until Apollo 10, the scheduled "F" mission. This also meant that the medium Earth orbit "E" mission could be dispensed with. The net result was that only the "D" mission had to be delayed.

The Saturn V rocket used by Apollo 8 was designated SA-503.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Originally a public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83cGclY9OZk?t=001

Tony De La Rosa

Offline Alpha Control

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #90 on: 12/21/2018 04:44 am »
Apollo 8 Manned Space Flight Film Report 1968 NASA; SA-503, CSM-103

Jeff Quitney
Published on Dec 20, 2018

A story of the first manned mission to leave Earth's orbit and orbit the moon. The 50th Anniversary of the Apollo 8 launch is on Friday, December 21, 2018.

[snip]



And the 50th anniversary clock starts - TODAY! Wow. For the next FOUR YEARS, from Dec 2018 to Dec 2022, we will be marking the 50th anniversary moments of an amazing time. When human beings journeyed regularly to a world beyond the earth.

A world known as our Moon: flying by it; orbiting; landing; the initial explorations, measured in hours. 

And then the boldness to live there for 3 days - and to take a car to the Moon. A driving vehicle on the moon! To take the explorers not hundreds of feet from their lander, but now to travel MILES from the safety of their lander.

I was a young kid at the time, and did not really appreciate this. But Apollos 15, 16, and 17 just astonish me in their boldness, even today.
 
Space launches attended:
Antares/Cygnus ORB-D1 Wallops Island, VA Sept 2013 | STS-123 KSC, FL March 2008 | SpaceShipOne Mojave, CA June 2004

Offline catdlr

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #91 on: 12/22/2018 06:43 am »
Copy of Apollo 8 documentary from American Experience's "Race to the Moon" series in 2005

The Daring Adventure of Apollo 8 in 1968


Dan Beaumont Space Museum
Published on Oct 17, 2016

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zp_RDqPQ-qg?t=001

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Offline Apollo-phill

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #92 on: 12/22/2018 07:27 am »
Attached PDF of my 1968 Apollo 8 article for Spaceflight magazine from all those 50 years ago.

Phill

Online edkyle99

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #93 on: 12/22/2018 01:40 pm »
Coming up on 50 years ago for this PAO announcement.

APOLLO 8 MISSION COMMENTARY, 12/22/68, GET 262700, CST 9:18A 93,/l

PAO:  This is Apollo Control Houston, 26 hours, 27 minutes into the flight. We are 108,400 miles out.  The velocity now is 5,080 feet per second. We have had no conversation with the crew the past 20 minute period. We do have this advisory however, on the trajectory of the S-IVB. At this particular point in the  mission, 26 and one-half hours, the S-IVB is placed by our best estimates at a point 800 miles - it is moving on a track - 800 miles outboard of the spacecraft and 1200 miles behind the spacecraft. I'll say again, it is 800 miles outboard of the spacecraft and 1200 miles behind, diagonally behind the spacecraft. Both are nautical references.  The point of closest approach of the S-IVB and Apollo 8 will be according to our-trajectory experts, at a point of when the spacecraft rounds the Moon for the first time, the S-IVB will go by - they will pass each other and they will be approximately 1800 nautical miles between the two of them at a point just as the spacecraft is acquired by the Earth, after its first around, and as its completing its first trip around the Moon. The path of the S-IVB will be outboard of the Moon and it will move on into its solar orbit. The distance again, the point of closest approach is the two move about the Moon, the S-IVB moving off on the Sun side of the Moon, the spacecraft making its first pass around.  They will come within 1800 nautical miles of each other. And that would occur at roughly, about 73 hours into the flight.  That is based on a LOI of about 72 hours. At  26 hours, 29 minutes into the flight, this is Apollo Control Houston.

https://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/apollo8.htm

 - Ed Kyle
« Last Edit: 12/22/2018 10:17 pm by edkyle99 »

Online edkyle99

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #94 on: 12/22/2018 10:29 pm »
About 50 years ago:

"APOLLO 8 MISSION COMMENTARY, 12/22/68, GET 345700, CST 5:47 117/2

PAO:  This is Apollo Control, we'll continue to stand by for any conversation with Frank Borman aboard the spacecraft. In the meantime, we would also like to perhaps clarify some figures we gave earlier concerning the point at which the spacecraft comes under the dominant influence of the Moon gravity and begins accelerating toward the Moon. 

Now that figure we gave you was a time of ground elapse time of 55 hours 38 minutes.  At that point the spacecraft velocity, this is inertial velocity, the - with respect to the Earth - is about 3,261 feet per second.  And this occurs at an attitude from the Earth of 176,271 nautical miles. 

At this point, the point at which the spacecraft passes into the lunar sphere of influence, gravitional influence, here in Mission Control Center will shift our reference point for measuring spacecraft velocity and will no longer be measuring it with respect to the earth, but will begin measuring it with respect to the Moon.  At this point 55 hours 38 minutes ground elapse time, the Earth reference velocity will be 3,261 feet per second, and by comparison in reference to the moon it will be 3,980 feet per second. 

To give you some indication of what continues to happen to the velocity then as we progress toward the Moon, the speed of the spacecraft with respect to the Earth will reach a minimum point some 65 hours into the flight when we're about 11,000 nautical miles above the Moon. At this point, the velocity will be 3,083 feet per second with respect to the Earth; with respect to the Moon, and this will be the figure that we'll be using in Mission Control Center, the velocity at that point 65 hours into the flight or 11,000 nautical miles from the Moon, the spacecraft velocity is projected to be about 4,353 feet per second, 4,350, and it will accelerate rapidly from that point for the next 4 hours until we reach the point of lunar orbit insertion. That nominaly is set to occur at this time at about 69 hours 11 minutes.  And for that 4 hour period of time, the velocity will increase from 4,350 feet per second to about 8,420 feet per second. 

And then as we go into orbit about the Moon, that will reduce the velocity by slightly under 3,000 feet per second taking it down to about 5,300 feet per second. 

Coming back again the same thing will apply In reverse. We’ll follow the spacecraft velocity with respect to the Moon until the Earth becomes the dominant force, gravitational force acting upon the spacecraft. And then at that point we will transfer back to an Earth reference system. 

At the present time Apollo 8 is at an altitude of 131 843 nautical miles, and we’re traveling at a velocity of 4327 feet per second.

At 35 hours 5 minutes into the flight, this Is Apollo Control."

 - Ed Kyle
« Last Edit: 12/23/2018 01:19 pm by edkyle99 »

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #95 on: 12/23/2018 12:33 pm »
50 years ago this morning.

"APOLLO 8 MISSION COMMENTARY,12/23/68,GET 465358,CST 545a 151/3

PAO:  This is Apollo Control Houston. We now read ground elapsed time of 47 hours. Perhaps its good to point out again that as we examine the data in the early hours of this morning, we chose not to do the mid-course correction burn at ground elapsed time of 47 hours. The reason we chose not to do this, the data indicated that the burn would be in the magnitude of about one foot-per-second, This would be followed by a water dump which would have some perturbation on the trajectory and it appeared wise to pass this one by.

So at 47 hours one minute now, this is Apollo Control Houston."

 - Ed Kyle
« Last Edit: 12/23/2018 12:36 pm by edkyle99 »

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #96 on: 12/23/2018 06:10 pm »
50 years ago starting at about 19:58 GMT (1:58 PM Houston time), on December 23, a Monday during 1968.

APOLLO 8 MISSION COMMENTARY, 12/23/68, GET 550750 CST 1:58p 166/l

SC Houston, This is Apollo 8. We have the television camera pointed directly at the earth.

PAO This is Apollo Control Houston. Frank Borman has come up a little bit earlier -- a little earlier than antlcapted, but let's buzz this picture out. It is -- The bright blob on the upper right is the earth.

....

SC Well, I hope that everyone enjoys the picture that we are taking of themselves. How far away from earth now, Jim, about?
 
CAPCOM We have you about 180,000

SC  (Lovell)  You are looking at yourselves at 180,000 miles out in space. Frank, what I keep imagining is if I am some lonely traveler from another planet what I would think about the earth at this altitude. Whether I think it would be inhabited or not.

CAPCOM Don't see anybody waving is that what you are saying?

SC I was just kind of curious if I would land on the blue or the brown part of the earth. You better hope that we land on the blue part.

CAPCOM So do we. Babe.

SC (Borman) Jim is always for land landings.

....

PAO This is Apollo Control Houston. We think that wraps up our television viewing for the day. The picture started -- 1 have to go back and get a hack on it -- I would estimate about 5 minutes of 2. Stand by and we will get an exact start time. We had not anticapted the starting of the pass until about 5 or 6 minutes after the hour.  The crew moved in on us a little early as they did yesterday.  I guess we should have anticapted it. 

When we began receiving a signal through Goldstone.

Stand by one.

We have had word from our station on Goldstone that they suspect that their reception may be even sharper than what we were receiving back here in Houston. We are going to get an early relay on that. We are still awaiting here a start time.  Our assistant is trying to get it for us. Well, we go with the estimate of 1:58 pm EST and the signal went off at approximately 2:20 pm CST.

Both of them are -- The spacecraft now 176,000 miles from earth. Its velocity in relation to the earth is 3,265 feet per second.

This is Apollo Control Houston.
« Last Edit: 12/23/2018 06:15 pm by edkyle99 »

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #97 on: 12/23/2018 11:32 pm »
APOLLO 8 MISSION COMMENTARY, 12/23/68, GET 580000, CST 4:51p 172/l

PAO This is Apollo Control at 58 hours into the flight of Apollo 8. We've had no communications with the spacecraft since our last report, and here in Mission Control it has also been rather quiet. At the present time the spacecraft is at an altitude of 28 225 nautical miles from the moon and velocity reads 4024 feet per second.  Coming up in just a little under 3 hours we have a midcourse correction maneuver scheduled. This is listed as midcourse correction number 4 in the flight plan and will actually be the second midcourse correction on route to the moon. Midcourse corrections 2 and 3, which were listed in the flight plan, were such low values that they were not performed and we anticipate that midcourse correction coming up will be for about 3 feet per second, a burn of about 3 feet per second using the spacecraft reaction control system.

At 58 hours 1 minute this is Apollo Control.
« Last Edit: 12/23/2018 11:33 pm by edkyle99 »

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #98 on: 12/23/2018 11:56 pm »
APOLLO 8 MISSION COMMENTARY, 12/23/68, GET 601600, CST 7:07 179/l

PAO This is Apollo Control. During that series of conversations with the spacecraft, among the numbers passed up to the crew and then verified and read back down from the spacecraft, was the information that will be used for the midcourse correction coming up at 61 hours.  That maneuver is scheduled to be an RCS maneuver using the 4 reaction control system jets on the service module, each of those having a thrust of about 100 pounds. So we'd have a total of 400 pounds of thrust. The burn duration is scheduled for 11 seconds and with that much burn time and that much thrust acting on the weight of the vehicle which is estimated to be at 62,888 pounds it gives a delta V, a change in velocity, of about 2 feet per second. And that velocity change would be in the retrograde direction. It would slow the spacecraft down slightly, having the effect of lowering the perigee or perilune at the point the spacecraft passes closest to the moon. Our computations on the ground give the low point above the surface of the moon at present, without the maneuver, as 69 nautical miles, The nominal altitude would be 61.5, and this burn is designed to give us that altitude at pericynthion. The spacecraft will be pitched down and yawed right slightly in the burn, making it retrograde and slightly out of grade.
« Last Edit: 12/23/2018 11:56 pm by edkyle99 »

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Re: Apollo 8
« Reply #99 on: 12/24/2018 01:04 am »
APOLLO MISSION COMMENTARY, 12/23/68, GET 605400 CST 7:45 p 182/l

PAO This is Apollo Control at 60 hours 54 minutes we just heard from the spacecraft. Jim Love11 advised that they are set and apparently ready to go at this time for their midcourse correction maneuver. We will play back that conversation for you and then stand by for further communications with the spacecraft.

SC Houston, Apollo 8.
CAPCOM Go ahead.
SC We are all set up counting down at 8 minutes.
CAPCOM Roger.
CAPCOM Apollo 8. Our data is down right now, appreciate you making sure you have the tape recorder on.
SC Roger. I am going to go -- I'll have to go COMMAND reset. You've got control.
SC Houston, Apollo 8.
CAPCOM Go ahead.
SC Roger. You have some pitch and yaw angles for our PGC after burn.
CAPCOM Okay Apollo 8. That's pitch 348 yaw 315.
SC Pitch 348, yaw 315.
CAPCOM That's affirmative. Hey, would you give
us another hack on your count down time?
SC It's 518 17 16 15 14.
CAPCOM Thank you.
SC Houston, I will give you a mark in 4 minutes.
CAPCOM All right. Thank you.
SC 3 2 1 mark. Four minutes.

PAO We are coming up now on 3 minutes until our course correction maneuver. You will note a slight time delay from the time when the spacecraft is counting back and we're watching our clocks here. That's about one and half second delay one way. Here is another call to the crew.

CAPCOM Apollo 8, Houston. How about switching the piomed switch over to the left.
SC  Roger. 3 2 1 mark switch.

PAO Coming up on 2 minutes now. Still looking good for that maneuver. At the present time, the spacecraft
is at an altitude of 21 thousand 144 nautical miles above the moon and traveling at a speed of 4100 feet per  second.

We're now comine up on 1 minute 30 seconds until that midcourse correction maneuver.

This is Apollo Control at 60 hours 59 minutes 41 seconds, and we're counting down now the last 10 seconds to our maneuver.

We should have the beginning of that 11 second reaction control system
maneuver at this time, We will stand hy for confirmation here on the ground-

We show the burn completed at this time.

We should have some preliminary figures shortly. Power Guidance.and Control Officer advises that they clocked the burn at about 12 seconds. We nominally planned it for about 11. That would be a one second differential.

SC Houston, Apollo 8.
CAPCOM Go ahead.
SC Roger. Burn on time, angles nominal, burn time about 12 seconds, . 2 feet Per second after the Delta-VC,
0 in VGX. We have transferred the results of the burn over to the left slot VERB 66.
CAPCOM Roger.
….

PA0 This is Apollo Control. Based on this information passed back from the crew on that midcourse correction and our figures here on the ground, it appears that the maneuver was within about 0.2 of a foot per second of being right on the nominal and that would put us very close to the nreplanned pericynthion of 61-l/2 nautical miles.  We, of course, will be tracking the spacecraft following this maneuver to determine just exactly'what effect it did have.  But that was the preplanned. That maneuver would have had the effect of lowering the pericynthion by about 6 or 7 nautical miles.

At 61 hours 10 minutes into the flight, Apollo 8 is currently at an altitude of 28 676 nautical miles and
traveling at a speed of 4107 feet per second. This is Apollo Control, Houston.
« Last Edit: 12/24/2018 01:16 am by edkyle99 »

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