Author Topic: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates  (Read 268437 times)

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #400 on: 01/29/2021 12:42 pm »
DLR Press Release, 29 January 2021

First Ariane 6 upper stage leaves the factory premises in Bremen - Milestone for Europe's new launcher

Europe's new launcher, Ariane 6, is nearing completion. Like its predecessor, Ariane 5, the upper stage of the new European Space Agency (ESA) rocket is being built at ArianeGroup in Bremen. On the night of 28 to 29 January 2021, a fully functional, full-size test model, identical to the model that will be used for Ariane 6 launches, began a very special journey to southern Germany in a transport container that is 14 metres long, almost seven metres wide and six metres high. "With the departure of the first upper stage from the factory in Bremen, we have initiated the countdown to the first launch of Ariane 6. The upper stage is the heart of Ariane 6, and it is being both built and tested here in Germany. Independent access to space – which Ariane 6 will ensure after Ariane 5 is phased out – is not only geopolitically important, but also relevant for the future of Germany as a high-tech country," explains Walther Pelzer, Member of the DLR Executive Board and Director General of the German Space Agency within DLR, which manages the funding that Germany provides to ESA on behalf of the German government.

The next two Ariane 6 upper stages are also nearing completion in Bremen. The Combined Test Model (CTM) will be used for joint tests with the main stage at the European spaceport in Kourou in the second half of 2021, and the Flight Model 1 (FM1) will be used for the first flight of Ariane 6, which is expected to take place in the first half of 2022.

A journey across the Weser, Waal, Rhine and Neckar rivers

The first Ariane 6 upper stage is scheduled to arrive at DLR's Lampoldshausen site on 7 February and will be thoroughly tested during the coming months. "The container weighs 57 tonnes including the upper stage. It will first travel via the Weser and the North Sea to the deep sea port of Rotterdam. From there it will continue south via the Dutch river Waal into the Rhine. In Mannheim, the container ship will turn right and enter the river Neckar, before its journey ends in Bad Wimpfen in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. There, the container will be loaded onto a heavy transporter heading for Lampoldshausen," reports Denis Regenbrecht, Ariane 6 Programme Manager at the German Space Agency within DLR in Bonn.

"The fact that progress is being made in the development of the upper stage and the associated tests is an important milestone. After all, the new European launcher – selected at ESA's Ministerial Council meeting in Luxembourg in December 2014 – was due to launch into space in 2020," says Walther Pelzer. With the tests in Lampoldshausen, we will move a significant step closer to the first flight of Ariane 6.

The upper stage – the heart of every rocket

The Ariane 6 upper stage is 11.6 metres high and has a diameter of 5.4 metres. Without it, the rocket could not reach space. This is because its newly developed cryogenic Vinci engine, with its propellant made of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, provides the necessary thrust to release the on-board payload at a precise location in orbit. The burn time lasts more than 14 minutes and Vinci can be fired up to four times. This allows multiple payloads to be placed into different orbits. In addition, the control electronics that set and maintain Ariane 6's course through space are housed in the upper stage.

Ariane 6 – a promising rocket

As with its predecessors, Ariane 6 will be a dynamic launcher that is intended to evolve continuously. At Space19+, ESA's last Ministerial Council, participating states decided on a further development programme to make Ariane 6 even more powerful and cost-effective. A core element of this programme is an additional small kick stage, ASTRIS, which, like the upper stage, will be developed and built in Germany. This special rocket stage should make it possible to carry several satellites with completely different target orbits in one launch, or to reach targets far outside Earth's orbit. For this stage, a new compact engine called BERTA is being developed in Ottobrunn and will also be tested at DLR's Lampoldshausen site.

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #401 on: 02/04/2021 09:39 am »
Ariane 6 on the road  :)

Offline eeergo

Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #402 on: 02/10/2021 07:53 am »
And now on a barge, with the nice background of dowtown Cologne:

https://mobile.twitter.com/DLR_de/status/1359188594443886596
-DaviD-

Offline Star One

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #403 on: 02/10/2021 10:39 am »
And now on a barge, with the nice background of dowtown Cologne:

https://mobile.twitter.com/DLR_de/status/1359188594443886596
Translation of the first tweet in that thread.

Quote
One #Domblick, please! Star-struck Today the first upper stage of the launcher went across the Rhineland
@ Ariane6
. The container with the valuable freight passed #Duesseldorf, #Koeln and #Bonn on the waterway - with the best view of the city's

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #404 on: 02/14/2021 10:01 am »
DLR Press Release, 13 February 2021

The upper stage of Europe's new launcher comes to Baden-Wuerttemberg - Ariane 6 – DLR ready to test first upper stage

On 14 February 2021, the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) will receive the first upper stage of the European Ariane 6 launcher. The fully functional test module will be subjected to extensive testing at DLR's Lampoldshausen site over the coming months. The aim is to verify that the rocket's upper stage is fit for flight – a major milestone on the way to its first launch, which is planned for the second quarter of 2022.

After being manufactured at the ArianeGroup factory in Bremen, on 29 January 2021 the upper stage was dispatched in a specially designed container. With the upper stage inside, the container weighed approximately 57 tonnes. It is roughly 14 metres long, seven metres wide and six metres high. Its journey has been split into several stages – being carried by ship then by heavy transporter – via the Weser, Hunte, Ems and Ijsel rivers, then the Rhine and Neckar rivers, before reaching its final destination of Lampoldshausen, near Heilbronn.

Unique, flexible and efficient – DLR's infrastructure and expertise for future space transport systems

"By launching its test campaign for the upper stage of the future European launcher, Ariane 6, DLR is demonstrating its scientific and technological expertise in space research," says Professor Anke Kaysser-Pyzalla, Chair of the DLR Executive Board. "Our new P5.2 test rig meets the requirements of modern space transport; it is cost effective and can be quickly adapted. We are harnessing the potential of flexible testing facilities and working alongside industry to lay the groundwork for the future of European space transport."

"Thanks to its test facilities, DLR is able to validate not only engines and individual launcher components, but also entire cryogenic upper stages," says Hansjoerg Dittus, Member of the DLR Executive Board for Space Research and Technology.

Refuelling and hot-firing tests during test campaign lasting several months

Following the arrival of the upper stage, it will be integrated into the new P5.2 test rig. The launcher will be lifted by a crane, hung on the test rig and fastened in place. The upper stage measures 5.4 metres across and is more than 10 metres high. It weighs approximately seven tonnes without fuel, but 38 tonnes once fuel has been added.

P5.2 was specially designed and constructed by DLR for the purpose of testing the upper stage of Ariane 6. The upper stage consists of the Vinci engine, which can be ignited multiple times, the tanks for the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, piping, valves and the electronic and hydraulic control and steering systems.

Cryogenic upper stage – low temperatures, major challenges

Lasting several months, the test campaign will involve a clean fuelling and defuelling test and four 'hot-firing' tests. In the fuelling and defuelling test, the focus will be on filling and emptying the tank safely. The test is designed to build experience and facilitate the development of safe methods for carrying out such processes but also for aborting them if necessary. The fact that this is a cryogenic upper stage makes this no simple task. The hydrogen and oxygen that serve as the fuel must be cooled to extremely low temperatures –minus 183 and minus 253 degrees Celsius respectively. These temperatures require the use of specialist materials that must be handled very carefully. Ariane 6's Vinci engine is ignited up to three times during the hot-firing tests – which simulate different flight scenarios – with the thrust and duration of the ignition varying from test to test. With this flexibility, Ariane 6 will be able to deploy its payloads in different orbits.

"With the P5.2 test rig and the test programme for the Ariane 6 upper stage, DLR has all the test facilities it needs in Lampoldshausen to comprehensively test all the space engines that Europe will require in the future," says Stefan Schlechtriem, Director of the DLR Institute of Space Propulsion, describing the unique test rig. "In addition, new development programmes and standardised acceptance tests of Ariane flight engines can take place in parallel. This makes it the most flexible and efficient test centre for rocket engines in Europe."

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #405 on: 02/14/2021 10:03 am »

Offline Mammutti

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #406 on: 02/15/2021 09:08 am »
twitter.com/DLR_en/status/1361249326526259202

https://twitter.com/DLR_en/status/1361249331836256257

Quote from: DLR - English
The @Ariane6 upper stage arrived safely in #Lampoldshausen yesterday. Here are a few more highlights of its night-time journey. 
© DLR CC-BY 3.0

We would like to thank everyone involved! We hope that you were able to warm up again quickly.

Offline eeergo

Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #407 on: 02/17/2021 11:18 am »
-DaviD-

Offline eeergo

Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #408 on: 03/21/2021 11:35 am »
First water deluge tests in the new Ariane 6 pad:

https://mobile.twitter.com/thivallee/status/1371706293971484672
-DaviD-

Offline GWR64

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #409 on: 04/01/2021 08:15 pm »
RUAGSpace
@RuagSpace
Big #milestone: After six years of development, our first payload fairing for the future #Ariane6  is on its way to the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana, to be delivered to @ArianeGroup. The payload fairing will be used for the combined tests of the new #launcher.

https://twitter.com/RuagSpace/status/1376821513366700034

Offline sts9

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #410 on: 04/02/2021 06:18 pm »
Ariane 6 - Chantier ELA4 - March 2021 from CNES




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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #411 on: 05/07/2021 07:46 am »
First Ariane 6 fairing at Europe’s Spaceport
06/05/2021

Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana is carrying out combined tests to prepare for the arrival of Ariane 6, Europe’s next generation heavy-lift launch vehicle.

The first Ariane 6 fairing has arrived at the Spaceport from Europe. It is 20 m high and 5.4 m in diameter and is being integrated with a mockup payload to test equipment and procedures inside the assembly building.

Ruag Space in Emmen, Switzerland manufactures each entire large half-shell in one piece from carbon-fibre composite which is ‘cured’ in an industrial oven. This reduces cost and speeds up production. Fewer parts allow horizontal as well as vertical assembly of the closed fairing and the launch vehicle, which is particularly important for Ariane 6.

A blue metal frame, the ‘strongback’, encases the fairing. There is one for each half-shell to hold each steady and to maintain the shape of the fairing while it is being raised vertical, and during assembly.

The mockup payload stands on its payload adaptor – the black cone. This is the interface between the bottom of the payload and the rocket. The adapter cone is fixed to a permanent dock on the ground.

Before this combined test, the French space agency, CNES, updated the existing Ariane 5 assembly building with a new integration dock, composed of a large white frame, with two mobile platforms adjustable to any level and accessible by fixed stairs and platforms.

This assembly building has two halls: one for integration of the fairing on the Ariane 5 rocket, and an encapsulation hall where the payload is stowed in the fairing. This encapsulation area is a spacious clean room for Ariane 6.

A new door 26 m high has been installed at the entrance of the building to make room for the integrated fairing, payload and adapter to move on its trailer to the Ariane 6 launch zone.

This activity is one of many extensive ‘combined tests’ which are being carried out in a team effort at the Spaceport by ESA, CNES, ArianeGroup, Avio and other industry partners. These tests will prove the systems and procedures that will prepare Europe's new Ariane 6 launch vehicle for flight.

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #412 on: 05/11/2021 09:02 am »
The Ariane 6 APU is ready

Paris, May 11, 2021

 The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), at the heart of the versatility of the Ariane 6 upper
stage, has completed its qualification campaign, with a total operating time of 137601
seconds over the course of more than 53 tests

 The APU is a real concentrate of innovations, capable of pressurizing the upper stage
tanks, preparing the Vinci engine in-flight reignitions, and providing additional thrust
on demand, in orbit

 The APU will be used for the first time during the hot-fire tests of the first Ariane 6 upper
stage, currently under preparation at the DLR site in Lampoldshausen, Germany
The Ariane 6 upper stage Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) has just completed its final qualification tests
at ArianeGroup’s Vernon, France site. It has been operated for a total of 137601 seconds over the
course of more than 50 tests since the beginning of development (more than 38 hours).

Once integrated into the upper stage, the main role of this innovative device is to pressurize the
tanks. The APU does this by drawing a small quantity of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen from the
tanks which it heats up by means of a gas generator produced entirely by 3D printing, pressurizes,
and then injects back into the tanks.

The highly versatile APU performs many other roles. In particular, it is used to prepare the Vinci
engine for its multiple reignitions – another first for the European launchers – by settling its
propellants towards the bottom of the tanks to ensure optimal operation of the Vinci engine’s
turbopumps. Because the behavior of fluids is significantly affected by weightlessness, the
propellants would tend to disperse throughout the tanks otherwise.

The APU can also generate additional thrust on demand. For example, to propel the stage once
in orbit, a function that is particularly useful for the separation of satellite “clusters”, a method used
for constellation deployment, or to improve the accuracy of final orbital injection.

Finally, another example of the APU’s versatility is its ability to de-orbit the stage at the end of a
mission in accordance with European space law by powering it towards Earth, so that it burns up
on atmospheric entry.

“This propulsion system is a key factor in enhancing the versatility of Ariane 6, notably for launching
constellations,” said André-Hubert Roussel, CEO of ArianeGroup. “We took the decision of
introducing this innovation during development, and the success of the qualification tests is reward
for the technological boldness shown by our Ottobrunn and Vernon teams who were able to invent
and develop a multi-function instrument which makes a significant contribution to the
competitiveness of Ariane 6.”

Now that this step has been completed, the APU will be tested on the very first complete Ariane 6
upper stage, the purpose-built Hot Firing Model (HFM). It will be a key factor for the success of the
hot-fire tests, currently under preparation at the German Aerospace Center DLR’s dedicated test
bench in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

https://www.ariane.group/en/news/the-ariane-6-apu-is-ready/?utm_campaign=newsletter&utm_source=en_US

Offline Steven Pietrobon

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #413 on: 05/17/2021 07:31 am »
Ariane 6 launch pad water deluge system test
16 May 2021

The water deluge system, which is activated at liftoff, was put to the test on the Ariane 6 launch pad at Europe’s Spaceport in April 2021. This is one of the qualification tests to prepare for the arrival of Ariane 6, Europe’s next generation heavy-lift launch vehicle.

Akin's Laws of Spacecraft Design #1:  Engineering is done with numbers.  Analysis without numbers is only an opinion.

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #414 on: 06/19/2021 09:42 pm »
Cross-post; my bold:
Quote
ARIANE 6
Access to space for all applications under the best conditions!
https://www.arianespace.com/vehicle/ariane-6/#in-depth
Quote
Ariane 6 will provide Arianespace with new levels of efficiency and flexibility to meet customers' launch services needs across a full range of commercial and institutional missions, with first flight planned for the end of 2022.
« Last Edit: 06/19/2021 09:42 pm by zubenelgenubi »
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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #415 on: 07/09/2021 12:35 am »
Cross-post; my bold; first and second flights:
https://insidegnss.com/galileo-update-esas-paul-verhoef-outlines-top-priorities/
Quote
After the November/December launch, Verhoef said, “We will do two more launches relatively quickly, one after the other, at intervals of about six or seven months. At that point we will have six new satellites in orbit. That’s two extra in every orbital plane. And then the remaining three launches, six more satellites, will come after that, to complete the batch-three series.”

According to current plans, if the new Ariane 6 is ready, the big launcher will take the last six satellites into orbit. “There will be an Ariane 6 maiden flight, and then we will be its first normal ‘paying’ customer, so to speak,” Verhoef said.
Soyuz-ST-B/Fregat-MT Galileo pair launches = FM23 & 24 late Nov/early Dec 2021; FM25 & 26 mid-2022; FM27 & 28 late 2022/early 2023.
Second Ariane 6 flight = Ariane 62, Galileo FM29 and 30.
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Offline PM3

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #416 on: 07/09/2021 07:43 am »
Cross-post; my bold:
Quote
ARIANE 6
Access to space for all applications under the best conditions!
https://www.arianespace.com/vehicle/ariane-6/#in-depth
Quote
Ariane 6 will provide Arianespace with new levels of efficiency and flexibility to meet customers' launch services needs across a full range of commercial and institutional missions, with first flight planned for the end of 2022.

"end of" has been removed from the Arianespace website; it now just says "in 2022". The only other clue about first Ariane 6 launch is this:

Quote
Aschbacher suggested that schedule could see more delays. The independent assessment, he said, will “make sure that we can do everything we need to do to launch on time.” He later defined “on time” as being before the next ESA ministerial meeting, which is tentatively scheduled for late 2022.
https://spacenews.com/europe-proposes-launcher-alliance/

Eric Berger - who generally reports agressive against European and Russian space activities - confused the date of the meeting with the date of the launch and wrote "Europe hopes for a late 2022 launch". Which then spread over Wikipedia and other media.

There is no (more) communicated "late 2022" launch target. They try to launch it before the meeting, which in past years happend in October, November or December.

Quote
Soyuz-ST-B/Fregat-MT Galileo pair launches = FM23 & 24 late Nov/early Dec 2021; FM25 & 26 mid-2022; FM27 & 28 late 2022/early 2023.
Second Ariane 6 flight = Ariane 62, Galileo FM29 and 30.

Besides of Ariane 6 availability, Galileo payload readiness might slip as well. So I don't see clear evidence yet that FM27 & 28 switch to Soyuz.
« Last Edit: 07/09/2021 07:51 am by PM3 »
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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #417 on: 07/13/2021 02:23 pm »
ArianeGroup wins ESA’s “ASTRIS”

competition for an even more versatile Ariane 6

Bremen / Munich, 13 July 2021

 In the framework of the Ariane 6 Competitiveness Improvement Programme,
the European Space Agency has appointed ArianeGroup as prime contractor
for the development of a complementary stage for Ariane 6, the “ASTRIS” kickstage.

 ArianeGroup development activities are worth €90 million

 Developed by ArianeGroup in Germany, ASTRIS is a true additional stage,
called a “kick-stage”, that will further increase the versatility of Ariane 6 and
enhance performance for new types of mission

Powered by the BERTA engine with storable propellants, ASTRIS will increase
the capability to inject satellites directly into geostationary orbit (GEO), allow
electrically-powered satellites to reach their orbits in a few hours instead of in
a few months, and facilitate missions to the Moon and deep space

 The first Ariane 6 mission equipped with the ASTRIS kick-stage is scheduled
for 2024


The European Space Agency (ESA), as part of its Ariane 6 Competitiveness Improvement
Program, has chosen ArianeGroup to develop and build a complementary stage (kick-stage) for
Ariane 6, called ASTRIS, which will enable Arianespace, operator of the new European launcher,
to place with even greater efficiency a larger number of payloads in different orbits, or to inject
satellites into geostationary orbit (GEO).
This optional stage will also contribute to enhanced performance for certain Ariane 6 missions,
including those to the Moon or deep space, as it will make for reduction in spacecraft complexity
and the risks inherent in orbit injection.
Worth a total of €90 million, the contract follows a decision made at the ESA Ministerial Conference
in November 2019.

The first flight of an Ariane 6 with the new ASTRIS kick-stage is currently scheduled for 2024.
“From the beginning of the Ariane 6 program, the launcher was designed to be scalable and
incorporate innovations throughout its operating cycle. This contract rewards the expertise and
innovation capacity of our Bremen site in the field of launcher upper stages, while our teams near
Munich are currently developing the new BERTA engine. By pooling our skills, this project further
strengthens Germany’s role in the new European launcher, Ariane 6,” said Pierre Godart, CEO of
ArianeGroup in Germany. “This optional small stage will further enhance the versatility of Ariane 6
to meet the needs of Arianespace customers even better. For example, it will enable dual launches
with a first payload to be placed in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) and then inject the second
directly into geostationary orbit (GEO).”

For this development, ArianeGroup will call on a number of SMEs and start-ups, including Berlinbased PTS for the electronics system, RST in Rostock for the mechanical ground support
equipment, electrical harnesses and part of the electrical ground support equipment, and the
Austrian company FACC for the primary structure.
ASTRIS will be powered by an innovative engine called BERTA (Bi-Ergoler
RaumtransporTAntrieb), based on technologies developed as part of ESA’s Future Launchers
Preparatory Program (FLPP).

This type of engine can be reliably reignited several times, making it particularly suitable for
extended missions or for transport to different orbits.
ASTRIS will be placed between the upper stage and the payload or between the Ariane Double
Launch System (DLS) and its payload (which can consist of one or several satellites), reducing the
amount of fuel required for orbit injection.
Even more than with a “standard” Ariane 6, the kick-stage will simplify the orbit injection at different
inclinations of satellites of the same constellation.

Finally, this small additional stage will be particularly useful for launching electrically-powered
satellites. Once placed in their transfer orbit, these satellites may take several months to reach their
final orbit. Thanks to the ASTRIS kick-stage, this phase can be reduced to a few hours, which
constitutes a significant advantage for operators choosing this option. This will reinforce Ariane 6’s
position as the most precise launcher on the market, capable of bringing a satellite to the last
kilometer of its final orbital position.

The ASTRIS system is developed for ESA at ArianeGroup’s Bremen site, the European center of
excellence for upper stages, in close collaboration with its Ottobrunn (engines) and
Lampoldshausen (propellant pipes and valves) sites. ArianeGroup’s unique expertise, acquired
through long and close cooperation between these establishments, is the hallmark of the European
market leader.

Pre-development activities already carried out on the BERTA engine under the FLPP will enable
the engine to be developed at ArianeGroup’s Ottobrunn site south of Munich within the same
timeframe as ASTRIS, to secure its market entry. ArianeGroup has already successfully tested a
prototype of this engine on the test bench of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in
Lampoldshausen. BERTA is an engine in the 4 to 5 kilonewton class, designed to operate with
room-temperature storable propellants.

The funding of the kick-stage and the BERTA engine is provided in the framework of ESA’s
Competitiveness Improvement Program (CIP).

https://www.ariane.group/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/Astris-Kickstage-ESA-EN-1.pdf

Offline Hobbes-22

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #418 on: 07/13/2021 03:24 pm »
More about Astris:
https://www.esa.int/Enabling_Support/Space_Transportation/Ariane/Ariane_6_targets_new_missions_with_Astris_kick_stage

Quote
Astris will simplify missions by taking over some of the required built-in propulsion capabilities of payloads to move themselves to their final position in orbit. This will reduce the burden on satellite manufacturers to factor this into their design.

The modular architecture of Astris makes it versatile, giving potential for even more capabilities. Structures will include a flight proven family of propellant tanks. This approach makes it possible to develop mission specific kits that offer a tailored solution to each customer.
Attached one of the images from that page.

Astris is a name with a history in European space flight. It was the name of the engine on the third stage of the Europa rocket.


Video about Astris
« Last Edit: 07/13/2021 03:26 pm by Hobbes-22 »

Offline Steven Pietrobon

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Re: ESA - Ariane 6 Updates
« Reply #419 on: 07/14/2021 06:16 am »
Astris kick stage for Ariane 6
8 Jul 2021

The Astris kick stage is being developed for ESA by prime contractor, ArianeGroup. It is an optional add-on to Ariane 6’s upper stage and will interface directly with the payload. This will enable Ariane 6 to offer a range of new space transportation services by allowing complex orbital transfers.

Astris will simplify missions by taking over some of the required built-in propulsion capabilities of payloads to move themselves to their final position in orbit. Future space missions, especially for telecommunications applications and space exploration, could use Astris to reduce mission cost and risk. ESA’s Hera spacecraft, a planetary defence mission to the Didymos asteroid system, is set to be the first to benefit.

In three types of missions, Astris could enable deep space exploration for ridesharing payloads with destinations such as asteroids, the Moon and Mars; insert a payload directly into geostationary orbit; or augment Ariane 6’s ability to deploy multiple payloads such as a constellation into separate low Earth orbits on a single launch.

Activities for the development of the Astris kick stage are being carried out as part of the Ariane 6 Competitiveness Improvement Programme within ESA’s Directorate of Space Transportation.

Akin's Laws of Spacecraft Design #1:  Engineering is done with numbers.  Analysis without numbers is only an opinion.

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