International Space Flight (ESA, Russia, China and others) => Russian Launchers - Soyuz, Progress and Unmanned => Topic started by: GreyKarast on 09/24/2013 05:18 AM

Title: Russian (Soviet) Reusable Space Systems.
Post by: GreyKarast on 09/24/2013 05:18 AM
System- Bohr, Spiral Clipper.
Soviet history is full of mysteries and secrets. Of particular interest are projects of the Soviet Union and all kinds of scientific research, some of which are still classified as "Top Secret". However, all the secret sooner or later becomes apparent.
The "Spiral"So were the 60 years - the height of the space race and the Cold War. At this time the United States had an active project development Dyna Soar, which meant the creation of a hypersonic interceptor manned orbital reconnaissance bomber, the X-20.In response, the Soviet Union decided to create its own aerospace systems. In 1965, the corresponding instruction was given to the experimental design bureau 115 (OKB-115) named Alexander Mikoyan, where the study was headed by Chief Designer Gleb Lozino-Lozinski. The project was called "Spiral". He was to be the main argument for the possibility of war in the Soviet Union in space and from space.
The chosen scheme launch space plane and constructive solutions incorporated Lozino - Lozinsky , have given the project the USSR "Spiral" at a glance:In orbit, can be derived payload 9% of the total weight of the entire systemThe cost of output for each kilogram of cargo was 3.5 times cheaperRapid withdrawal of the orbital plane at any point on the globeLanding in all weather conditionsThe " Spiral" consisted of three main parts: the hypersonic booster aircraft ( GSR) , two-stage rocket booster and the orbital plane (OS). As planned Lozino - Lozinski , booster aircraft to the orbital plane at the back had to take off from the base airfield and accelerate to a speed of about 7500 km / h After reaching a height of 30 kilometers of the orbital plane was separated from the GSR and using a two-stage rocket booster accelerated to orbital velocity ( about 7.9 km / s). After that, the orbital plane went into orbit and performed one of their combat missions : reconnaissance , missile interception space targets " space-space " and the bombing of missiles " space-to- Earth" with a nuclear warhead. At its core, the orbital plane is a true space fighter .The orbital plane of the " spiral ", as well as booster aircraft was piloted . Place the pilot was a separate capsule, which in case of emergency situation was to separate and save the life of the pilot even in space .Closure of the " Spiral"Development of the project "Spiral" was in full swing, and in the second half of the 1970s , scientists led by Gleb Lozino - Lozinsky planned to begin flights fully manned aerospace systems "Spiral" . The case remained for small - to approve the draft in the top leadership of the USSR. But the minister of defense of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko in the early 70s , instead approve the project "Spiral" , threw out all the documentation on it in the bin and said : "Imagination , we will not deal with ." Project of the USSR "Spiral" was closed.
Instead of the already finished "Spiral", work began on a large scale project "Energy-Buran", which was in charge of all same-Gleb Lozino Lozinski. Created within the Orbital Space Shuttle "Buran" was a response to American counterpart Space Shuttle. The first and only flight of "Buran" was held in November 18, 1988. Despite a number of fairly significant advantages over the Space Shuttle, the project "Buran-Energia" was also closed in 1993, and in 2002 by the collapse of the roof of one of the hangars ship "Buran" was completely destroyed.Thus, there were actually "buried" the two most promising space projects USSR "Spiral" and "Buran".
Title: Re: Russian (Soviet) Reusable Space Systems.
Post by: GreyKarast on 09/24/2013 05:30 AM
MANNED Space Shuttle "Clipper"      
Work on the design of manned spacecraft to RSC "Energia" is always a high priority. In the 1980s, a series of ships to replace the "Union", has been developed but has not been approved by the wingless design reusable spacecraft "Dawn". Even in the 90-ies of XX century was a modification of the "Soyuz TM" had touched on further modernization ("Union TMM", "Soyuz TMS").       In the second half of 1990 leading aerodynamicist RSC "Energia" AG RESHETIN proposed a new ship on a "lifting body" - an intermediate option between ballistic and cruise shuttle capsule "of the Union." As part of R & D was designed aerodynamics of the ship and its model has been tested in a wind tunnel. In 2000-2002, there was further elaboration of the ship, but the difficult situation in the industry do not give up hope of realization. Finally, in 2003, AG Reshetin managed to turn the tide - the project has received a free pass
In 2004 began the promotion of " Clipper ". Due to the lack of budget funding emphasis was on cooperation with other space agencies . In the same year, interest in the " Clipper " ESA has shown , but required a fundamental revision of the concept to fit their needs - the ship was supposed to land on airfields like an airplane. Less than a year later , in collaboration with EDB "Dry " and TsAGI has developed a winged version of the " Clipper ". Around the same time in the RSC was created a full-scale model of the ship, work began on the layout of the equipment.      Structurally, the "Clipper" is composed of the recovery vehicle ( VA) and the orbital module . The main feature - it's re-entry vehicle of the " lifting body " with a peculiar form of utyugoobraznoy . Significantly higher aerodynamic efficiency ( 0.6-1.8 at hypersonic against 0.25-0.3 at the " lights " of "Union" ) allows you to glide in the upper atmosphere , which reduces the thermal loads and allows the use of reusable thermal protection . The design also allows you to return the product to make lateral maneuvers in the range of 500-600 km, while the " spotlights " during the descent from orbit can be adjusted up to 70-80 km . In contrast to the "Union" VA aerodynamically unstable, so to keep the correct orientation during the descent from the device provided aerodynamic shields . Winged VA generally kept wingless fuselage , but despite this, has a high aerodynamic efficiency at subsonic ( 4-5 ) , allowing you to land on airfields as conventional aircraft.

Orbital module is designed based on the orbital compartment " of the Union ." Since it is taken of the rendezvous and docking . Orbital maneuvering engines are supposed to do on a pair of " ethanol / liquid oxygen ." Supply of cholesterol ~ 420 m / s .      The bottom compartment is docked to the orbital module with solid fuel engines emergency rescue system ( SAS ) . They are also used to propel spacecraft into orbit.      "Clipper" is being developed as one of the elements of the transport system servicing orbital complexes (stations) , its task is to : 1. To serve as a rescue vehicle for the evacuation of the station crew to Earth in the event of an emergency situation (when in the ship as part of the station) ; 2 . Return to Earth and delivery to the space station crew and payload; 3 . Withdrawal from the station equipment, exhaust their resources , waste products , etc. 4 . Back to Earth of research and experimentation ; 5 . Performing separate flight operations in the duty, as part of the station within the available resources of the ship.      Among the tasks that had to decide "Clipper" , not only the delivery of crews and cargo to the orbital station ( ISS in particular ) and their return to Earth , but the emergency evacuation of the space station crew , research and tourist orbital flights . Duration autonomous flight " Clipper " - 5 days (when the targets of the duration of autonomous flight without docking with the station up to 15 days), when docked his life will last for a whole year.      Deputy Head of the Scientific and Technical Center for design and calculation work RSC "Energia" Boris Sotnikov said that the launch of "Clipper " is possible with all the Russian space centers , where there are launch facilities "Union" : "Baikonur " and " Plesetsk" . In the case of the successful development of the " Union for the Kuru " - also under construction and a launch pad at the Baikonur " Kuru " in French Guiana .      The draft RSC "Energia " to launch the ship "Clipper " in low-Earth orbit was supposed to use the new Russian carrier rocket "Onega " being developed on the basis of deep modernization of the middle class launch vehicle "Soyuz" .      However, due to the fact that the simultaneous development of spacecraft and launch vehicle would require large financial and time costs , the ex -CEO of RSC "Energia" Yuri Semenov appealed to Ukrainian colleagues inviting them to use instead of the planned launch vehicle "Onega" in the co- operation on "Baikonur" cosmodrome Ukrainian-Russian carrier rocket "Zenit -2". According to him , the cost of the flight model " Clipper " about 10 billion rubles (in 2004 prices ) .

Development of the " Clipper " not among the priorities of the RSC "Energia" . According to Deputy General Designer of RSC "Energia " Valery Ryumin in the world forum "EXPO -2005 ", held in Japan in 2005, funding for the project "Clipper" at the expense of the budget was not planned. And in the future R & D financed from its own funds the corporation, in particular in 2007 on the basis of ground-based testing scheduled testing of a number laid down in the draft technical solutions.      Competition for the new Russian spacecraft has been declared by the Federal Space Agency ( Roscosmos ) November 23, 2005 . Projects were submitted by enterprises of JSC " RSC" Energia " . Korolev "(project " Clipper "), Khrunichev . Khrunichev and JSC "NPO" Lightning . " After months of discussion Competition Commission announced that none of the options does not satisfy the conditions of the tender , all of them (including the most researched "Clipper" ) have been sent back for revision , and the final decision postponed to June.      Initially a keen interest in the project " Clipper" showed Europe . It was assumed that ESA will develop avionics and other systems of the ship , and will invest in the project to 100 million per year for 10 years. In December 2005 at the ESA Council of Ministers discussed the allocation of EUR 60 million for preliminary studies on the project " Clipper" . However, the project was not supported , and the decision on the modalities of cooperation and the scale of its funding has been postponed until the summer of 2006 . After the failure of the joint ESA works of " Clipper ", Roscosmos accepted the offer to participate in the development of the European perspective of manned space transportation system based on ACTS European cargo spacecraft ATV automatic and Russian technology. At the same time , 2 weeks later , the Russian competition for promising reusable ship was officially discontinued , because of the technical and economic unrealizable .
According developed by RSC "Energia", adopted July 14, 2006 by the Government of the Russian Federation of the concept of development of the Russian manned space at 2006-2030. provides for the phased creation of industrial space transportation system, the near-earth space, the Moon and Mars missions. As part of the transport system, priority is put modernization of spacecraft "Soyuz" and the creation of interorbital tug "Ferry". Then, after 2015, as a prospective manned transportation system (PCA) is supposed to create a national (other than participation in the ESA project) is more versatile than the "Clipper" ship, able to fly, as in low-Earth orbit and to the moon. Second contest was held at the new Russian ship, the winner of which 6 April 2009 has been declared RSC "Energia", which is due to a wingless 2018 partially reusable manned transport ship the new generation (PTKNP, "Russia"), with the wide use of systems Designed for the "Clipper".
Title: Re: Russian (Soviet) Reusable Space Systems.
Post by: GreyKarast on 09/24/2013 06:14 AM
MULTI aerospace system (MAX)
Multipurpose aerospace system (MAX ) has a number of fundamental advantages . This is, first and foremost , the ability to derive loads on any inclination of the orbit , high efficiency and low cost of implementation and the lack of need for land acquisition under field fall of the structure.      In contrast to the missile systems that are linked to the launch pad a few spaceports and limited in the choice of orbits , MAX can be used for emergency rescue crews of space objects or for urgent exploration areas of man-made and natural disasters .By MAX NGO project "Lightning " started in the 80s of XX century, under the leadership of GE Lozino - Lozinski , before the first flight of the "Buran" , using the experience and results of the project "Spiral" , the experimental unmanned orbital rocket plane - devices "Bor " and " Buran ". By now already worked out the main parts of the orbiter , made ​​the layout of the external tank , there is a significant backlog for propulsion .      MAX - a two-stage complex, consisting of the carrier aircraft ( AN- 225 "Mriya" / "Dream" - more precisely based on the An -225 involves the development of a new carrier aircraft AN- 325 ), which established the orbital plane . The orbital plane can be both manned and unmanned . The design of the An -225 can be installed in the cargo container to an external fuel tank with cryogenic propellants , instead of the orbital plane. Instead of the first -stage rocket is used ordinary aircraft An -225 , the second stage can be performed in three ways: 1. MAKS- OS to the orbital plane and the one-off tank ; 2 . MAKS-M with an unmanned aircraft ; 3 . MAX -T with a disposable unmanned second stage and a load of 18 tons.      "The system is based on conventional airfields 1st class retrofit the necessary funds for the MAKS refueling propellants , ground maintenance and landing complex , and basically fits into the existing ground-based facilities management of space systems."      MAX can be used for emergency rescue crews of space objects or for ground reconnaissance . The absence of reference to the spaceport also extends the application of such a system.      This project, in contrast to the " Buran ", based on the principle of self-sufficiency. It is estimated that the costs should be paid off in 1.5 years , and the project can give 8.5 -fold profit. This system is unique because it was developed in the world , no such device. In addition, the MAX is much cheaper rockets by reusing carrier aircraft (up to 100) , the cost of removal of cargo into low-Earth orbit - about $ 1,000 . / Kg, for comparison, the average cost of removal is currently about 8,000-12,000 dollars . / kg for conversion RN "Dnepr" - 3500 dollars . / kg. The benefits can also include more environmental friendliness through the use of less toxic fuel (three- engine RD -701 kerosene / hydrogen + oxygen) . Currently, the project has already spent about $ 14 billion .
Project MAX received the gold medal ( with honors) and a special prize of the Prime Minister of Belgium in 1994 in Brussels at the World Exhibition of Inventions, Scientific Research and Industrial Innovation "Brussels - Eureka -94 ."      Multipurpose aerospace system now being developed in many countries, however, in the opinion of a number of foreign experts, Russia has moved in this way further than his competitors. Possession of a system such as MAX , would help her in the beginning of the XXI century to occupy a strong position in the market space .      In early 2006, the project MAX took part in the competition to design a manned spacecraft of new generation, the Russian Space Agency conducted in accordance with the Federal Space Program ( FCP ) under the theme of "Clipper" ( developmental work "Creating a reusable manned spacecraft for a new generation of transport - maintenance of manned orbital stations , advanced space systems and other low-Earth objects group , N36 by the PCF ) .      The competition , in addition to the NGO " Lightning " with the project MAX also participated Khrunichev . Khrunichev the project manned transport spacecraft and RSC "Energia" with the project "Clipper" . The latter was the original favorite of the contest - more precisely, the contest has been organized specifically for this project . It was assumed that the competition will be interdepartmental , involving in it only the enterprises subordinated to Roscosmos . However, NGOs 'Lightning' , having received written consent from the Federal Agency for Industry , failing to achieve their participation in the competition, having confused all the cards to the organizers . As a result, the competition has become an inter-ministerial . However, in the course of the competition there was friction between the management of RSC "Energia" and Roskosmos ( and there has been a convergence of leadership with the leadership of Khrunichev Space Agency ) , and despite the fact that the conditions of competition ( "Technical requirements for manned spacecraft of the new generation" ) was originally written by "Clipper" RKKE and they also posted a substantial safety margin MAX project , Roscosmos information letter ( ref. No. BP -21 -1526 from 10.03.2006 ) changed the conditions of the competition by introducing far-fetched requirement for competitive proposals " provide independent tasks to deliver crews to the Moon and return them to Earth , and in the future - the use of modifications in the ship manned missions to Mars . " Championship moved to the wingless design manned transport spacecraft Khrunichev . Khrunichev , but the situation has become so controversial (by this time line for OCD "Clipper" has disappeared from the PCF , and at the same time the European Space Agency (ESA) has intervened in the event , pledging $ 30 million to the " joint development of a new manned spacecraft "), which Roscosmos has stopped the contest , declaring it invalid. All projects were rejected , and in the justification of the decision to draft MAX was only one technical point - the carrier aircraft of foreign manufacture ...      However , attempts to attract extra-budgetary funds into the project MAX continues today - with a view to practical implementation MAX and its effective application.

download the bottom photo (it's a lot), then you will see the whole system.
Title: Re: Russian (Soviet) Reusable Space Systems.
Post by: Lars_J on 09/24/2013 06:46 AM
A mock-up was at least constructed: