Author Topic: NASA - Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite ( TESS ) updates  (Read 73309 times)

Offline baldusi

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My understanding was that TESS was designed to discover lots of planets by the transition method. All those targets can be studied later by different telescopes. Once you know where and when to look for the transition, you can budget very specific windows on the required telescopes that do have the required spectroscope (and sensitivity). You can also use the wobble method to know the mass, if I'm not mistaken.

Offline Hungry4info3

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Because TESS targets are systematically brighter than Kepler targets, there will be many small planets discovered around V < 10 stars, and consequently there are many new targets for atmospheric characterization. As a result, TESS is vital for the effort to characterize the atmospheres of low-mass planets, because it will be finding the best targets for it.

Kempton, et al. (2018) outlined a way to prioritize transiting planets for transmission spectroscopy via a "transmission spectroscopy metric" roughly equal to the Signal-to-Noise ratio for JWST's NIRspec instrument. I've produced a list here showing the planets with the highest 'TSM' so far within the range 0.7 RE < Rp < 1.5 RE. Notice the top of the list is dominated by M dwarf systems from a few ground-based surveys, but TESS, despite its relatively recent arrival on-scene, is already providing great targets for transmission spectroscopy follow-up.

Planet_____Temp__TSM___Discoverer
TRAPPIST-1b400 K43.309TRAPPIST
TRAPPIST-1d288 K36.519TRAPPIST
GJ 1132 b  580 K34.154MEarth
LHS 1140 c 438 K33.389MEarth+HARPS+Spitzer
TRAPPIST-1c342 K30.341TRAPPIST
L 98-59 c  512 K29.660TESS
GJ 357 b   531 K29.331TESS
TRAPPIST-1f219 K20.969Spitzer
TRAPPIST-1g199 K20.454Spitzer
TRAPPIST-1e251 K19.173Spitzer
L 98-59 d  405 K18.862TESS
TRAPPIST-1h169 K18.431Spitzer+K2
L 98-59 b  603 K18.262TESS
GJ 143 c   703 K16.619TESS
K2-229 b   1960 K4.49K2
Kepler-42 c729 K3.921Kepler
Kepler-10 b2169 K3.256Kepler

From the paper:
Quote
Based on the catalog of simulated TESS detections by Sullivan et al. (2015), we determine appropriate cutoff values of the metrics, such that the TESS mission will ultimately yield a sample of ∼300 high-quality atmospheric characterization targets across a range of planet size bins, extending down to Earth-size, potentially habitable worlds.
« Last Edit: 06/09/2019 12:33 am by Hungry4info3 »

Offline Star One

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TESS Finds Its Smallest Planet Yet

NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has discovered a world between the sizes of Mars and Earth orbiting a bright, cool, nearby star. The planet, called L 98-59b, marks the tiniest discovered by TESS to date.

Two other worlds orbit the same star. While all three planets’ sizes are known, further study with other telescopes will be needed to determine if they have atmospheres and, if so, which gases are present. The L 98-59 worlds nearly double the number of small exoplanets — that is, planets beyond our solar system — that have the best potential for this kind of follow-up.

“The discovery is a great engineering and scientific accomplishment for TESS,” said Veselin Kostov, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California. “For atmospheric studies of small planets, you need short orbits around bright stars, but such planets are difficult to detect. This system has the potential for fascinating future studies.”

A paper on the findings, led by Kostov, was published in the June 27 issue of The Astronomical Journal and is now available online.



L 98-59b is around 80% Earth’s size and about 10% smaller than the previous record holder discovered by TESS. Its host star, L 98-59, is an M dwarf about one-third the mass of the Sun and lies about 35 light-years away in the southern constellation Volans. While L 98-59b is a record for TESS, even smaller planets have been discovered in data collected by NASA’s Kepler satellite, including Kepler-37b, which is only 20% larger than the Moon.

The two other worlds in the system, L 98-59c and L 98-59d, are respectively around 1.4 and 1.6 times Earth’s size. All three were discovered by TESS using transits, periodic dips in the star’s brightness caused when each planet passes in front of it.

TESS monitors one 24-by-96-degree region of the sky, called a sector, for 27 days at a time. When the satellite finishes its first year of observations in July, the L 98-59 system will have appeared in seven of the 13 sectors that make up the southern sky. Kostov’s team hopes this will allow scientists to refine what’s known about the three confirmed planets and search for additional worlds.

“If you have more than one planet orbiting in a system, they can gravitationally interact with each other,” said Jonathan Brande, a co-author and astrophysicist at Goddard and the University of Maryland, College Park. “TESS will observe L 98-59 in enough sectors that it may be able to detect planets with orbits around 100 days. But if we get really lucky, we might see the gravitational effects of undiscovered planets on the ones we currently know.”

M dwarfs like L 98-59 account for three-quarters of our Milky Way galaxy’s stellar population. But they are no larger than about half the Sun’s mass and are much cooler, with surface temperatures less than 70% of the Sun’s. Other examples include TRAPPIST-1, which hosts a system of seven Earth-size planets, and Proxima Centauri, our nearest stellar neighbor, which has one confirmed planet. Because these small, cool stars are so common, scientists want to learn more about the planetary systems that form around them.

L 98-59b, the innermost world, orbits every 2.25 days, staying so close to the star it receives as much as 22 times the amount of energy Earth receives from the Sun. The middle planet, L 98-59c, orbits every 3.7 days and experiences about 11 times as much radiation as Earth. L 98-59d, the farthest planet identified in the system so far, orbits every 7.5 days and is blasted with around four times the radiant energy as Earth.

None of the planets lie within the star’s “habitable zone,” the range of distances from the star where liquid water could exist on their surfaces. However, all of them occupy what scientists call the Venus zone, a range of stellar distances where a planet with an initial Earth-like atmosphere could experience a runaway greenhouse effect that transforms it into a Venus-like atmosphere. Based on its size, the third planet could be either a Venus-like rocky world or one more like Neptune, with a small, rocky core cocooned beneath a deep atmosphere.

One of TESS’s goals is to build a catalog of small, rocky planets on short orbits around very bright, nearby stars for atmospheric study by NASA's upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Four of the TRAPPIST-1 worlds are prime candidates, and Kostov’s team suggests the L 98-59 planets are as well.

The TESS mission feeds our desire to understand where we came from and whether we’re alone in the universe.

"If we viewed the Sun from L 98-59, transits by Earth and Venus would lead us to think the planets are almost identical, but we know they’re not,” said Joshua Schlieder, a co-author and an astrophysicist at Goddard. “We still have many questions about why Earth became habitable and Venus did not. If we can find and study similar examples around other stars, like L 98-59, we can potentially unlock some of those secrets.”

Offline Star One

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Because it’s looking at bright stars, this means it’s looking for the most part at nearby stars. An exoplanet it just found fits that bill: At just over 22 light years distant, it’s the second nearest transiting exoplanet seen*, and the closest to the Sun detected so far orbiting a tiny red dwarf!

But this story just gets better. The star is part of a triple system of red dwarfs.

Quote
But we do know more about it. Observations using an instrument called HARPS were used to determine the mass of the planet, and it turns out to have at most 8.4 times Earth’s mass. A statistical analysis found a likely mass of 2.2 times Earth’s. That’s interesting, because that means it would have a density of about 90% Earth… which in turn means it’s made of slightly, but only slightly, less heavy stuff. Maybe it has a smaller iron core, or less rock and more water in the mantle and crust. These numbers are iffy, so this is just speculation. But it seems likely it’s a terrestrial planet, with at least a passing resemblance to Venus and Earth. Given the surface temperature, more like the former than the latter.

https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/tess-finds-a-super-earth-orbiting-a-star-in-a-nearby-triple-red-dwarf-star-system

Offline Star One

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But in recently published research, a team of astronomers at The Ohio State University showed that the survey, nicknamed TESS, could also be used to monitor a particular type of supernova, giving scientists more clues about what causes white dwarf stars to explode—and about the elements those explosions leave behind.

"We have known for years that these stars explode, but we have terrible ideas of why they explode," said Patrick Vallely, lead author of the study and an Ohio State astronomy graduate student. "The big thing here is that we are able to show that this supernova isn't consistent with having a white dwarf (take mass) directly from a standard star companion and explode into it—the kind of standard idea that had led to people trying to find hydrogen signatures in the first place. That is, because the TESS light curve doesn't show any evidence of the explosion slamming into the surface of a companion, and because the hydrogen signatures in the SALT spectra don't evolve like the other elements, we can rule out that standard model."

https://m.phys.org/news/2019-07-supernova-kind-nasa-satellite.html

Online jacqmans

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Northrop Grumman-Built TESS Discovers More than Twenty New Planets after One Year of Exploration

Spacecraft exceeds expectations as it continues to discover new worlds outside of the solar system

DULLES, Va. – July 25, 2019 – Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) celebrated one year of successful science operations for NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), built and operated by the company for NASA. In just one year, the observatory has discovered more than twenty confirmed planets and identified hundreds of additional candidates for further study in the Southern Hemisphere. TESS will now continue its mission by performing similar observations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Northrop Grumman-Built Tess Discovers More than Twenty New Planets after One Year of Exploration
NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) was built at Northrop Grumman’s Dulles, facility.
“The TESS observatory is exceeding expectations after just one year scanning the skies,” said Steve Krein, vice president, civil and commercial satellites, Northrop Grumman. “As the provider of mission operations for the spacecraft, Northrop Grumman is proud to support this historic mission as it continues to expand our knowledge of the universe while demonstrating our legacy of flight proven scientific spacecraft.”

As the first-ever satellite to perform an exoplanet survey of nearly the entire sky, TESS’s mission, using four wide-field cameras, is to identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to Jupiter-sized, orbiting a wide range of stellar types at various orbital distances. TESS began scanning the skies for new planets July 16, 2018, nearly three months after its successful April 18 launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

The TESS satellite was designed, manufactured and tested by Northrop Grumman at the company’s satellite manufacturing facility in Dulles. The company is also responsible for handling mission operations for the observatory. After launch, the observatory went through several tests and began preparation for a series of in-space maneuvers, including a lunar gravity assist, to reach its targeted high-Earth orbit. This lunar flyby was executed May 17, 2018 and the final period-adjustment maneuver was performed May 29.         

The mission team recently announced the discovery of yet another planet, between the sizes of Mars and Earth. The planet, called L 98-59b, marks the tiniest discovered by TESS to date. L 98-59b is around 80 percent Earth’s size. Its host star, L 98-59, is an M dwarf about one-third the mass of the sun and lies about 35 light-years away.

TESS is based on Northrop Grumman’s LEOStar-2™ bus, a flight-proven and flexible satellite platform that accommodates a wide variety of missions. The company has several other satellites in production for upcoming NASA missions including Landsat-9 and the JPSS-2, -3 and -4 weather spacecraft which use the larger LEOStar-3™ bus.

TESS is a NASA astrophysics explorer mission led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Dr. George Ricker of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research serves as principal investigator for the mission. Additional partners besides Northrop Grumman include NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley; the Harvard-Smithsonian center for astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts; MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts; and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. More than a dozen universities, research institutes and observatories worldwide are participants in the mission.

Offline Star One

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Three newly discovered exoplanets could help researchers redefine the shaky line between rocky and gaseous planets, according to new observations from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). TESS, which marks its first year of operations this month, spotted the trio of planets some 73 light-years away from Earth. The exoplanets are of a type that does not exist in our solar system, being between the Earth and Neptune in size.

That makes the closely packed system, known as TOI-270, a good bet for answering long-standing questions about how such “super-Earths” or “mini-Neptunes” form. The system is within range of ground-based telescopes and soon-to-be-launched orbiting instruments such as NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). “This will be one of the key systems for JWST to study,” says Michaël Gillon of the University of Liège in Belgium, who is following up on the TESS discovery.

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/07/newly-discovered-exoplanet-trio-could-unravel-mysteries-super-earth-formation

Offline Star One

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Confirmation of Toasty TESS Planet Leads to Surprising Find of Promising World

A piping hot planet discovered by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has pointed the way to additional worlds orbiting the same star, one of which is located in the star’s habitable zone. If made of rock, this planet may be around twice Earth’s size.

The new worlds orbit a star named GJ 357, an M-type dwarf about one-third the Sun’s mass and size and about 40% cooler that our star. The system is located 31 light-years away in the constellation Hydra. In February, TESS cameras caught the star dimming slightly every 3.9 days, revealing the presence of a transiting exoplanet — a world beyond our solar system — that passes across the face of its star during every orbit and briefly dims the star’s light.



“In a way, these planets were hiding in measurements made at numerous observatories over many years,” said Rafael Luque, a doctoral student at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) on Tenerife who led the discovery team. “It took TESS to point us to an interesting star where we could uncover them.”

The transits TESS observed belong to GJ 357 b, a planet about 22% larger than Earth. It orbits 11 times closer to its star than Mercury does our Sun. This gives it an equilibrium temperature — calculated without accounting for the additional warming effects of a possible atmosphere — of around 490 degrees Fahrenheit (254 degrees Celsius).

“We describe GJ 357 b as a ‘hot Earth,’” explains co-author Enric Pallé, an astrophysicist at the IAC and Luque’s doctoral supervisor. “Although it cannot host life, it is noteworthy as the third-nearest transiting exoplanet known to date and one of the best rocky planets we have for measuring the composition of any atmosphere it may possess.”

But while researchers were looking at ground-based data to confirm the existence of the hot Earth, they uncovered two additional worlds. The farthest-known planet, named GJ 357 d, is especially intriguing.

“GJ 357 d is located within the outer edge of its star’s habitable zone, where it receives about the same amount of stellar energy from its star as Mars does from the Sun,” said co-author Diana Kossakowski at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. “If the planet has a dense atmosphere, which will take future studies to determine, it could trap enough heat to warm the planet and allow liquid water on its surface.”

Without an atmosphere, it has an equilibrium temperature of -64 F (-53 C), which would make the planet seem more glacial than habitable. The planet weighs at least 6.1 times Earth’s mass, and orbits the star every 55.7 days at a range about 20% of Earth’s distance from the Sun. The planet’s size and composition are unknown, but a rocky world with this mass would range from about one to two times Earth’s size.

Even through TESS monitored the star for about a month, Luque’s team predicts any transit would have occurred outside the TESS observing window.

GJ 357 c, the middle planet, has a mass at least 3.4 times Earth’s, orbits the star every 9.1 days at a distance a bit more than twice that of the transiting planet, and has an equilibrium temperature around 260 F (127 C). TESS did not observe transits from this planet, which suggests its orbit is slightly tilted — perhaps by less than 1 degree — relative to the hot Earth’s orbit, so it never passes across the star from our perspective.

To confirm the presence of GJ 357 b and discover its neighbors, Luque and his colleagues turned to existing ground-based measurements of the star’s radial velocity, or the speed of its motion along our line of sight. An orbiting planet produces a gravitational tug on its star, which results in a small reflex motion that astronomers can detect through tiny color changes in the starlight. Astronomers have searched for planets around bright stars using radial velocity data for decades, and they often make these lengthy, precise observations publicly available for use by other astronomers.

Luque’s team examined ground-based data stretching back to 1998 from the European Southern Observatory and the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, and the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, among many others.

A paper describing the findings was published on Wednesday, July 31, in the journal Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics and is available online.

Offline Jeff Lerner

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Confirmation of Toasty TESS Planet Leads to Surprising Find of Promising World

“If the planet has a dense atmosphere, which will take future studies to determine, it could trap enough heat to warm the planet and allow liquid water on its surface.”


I find these discoveries fascinating....I want to believe we’re going to
Find an exoplanet with water sooner or later.

When they say, “future studies to determine, it could trap enough heat to warm the planet and allow liquid water on its surface., what technology do we have now that will allow us to confirm a dense atmosphere and/or water on an exoplanet ??

Offline Hungry4info3

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what technology do we have now that will allow us to confirm a dense atmosphere and/or water on an exoplanet ??
For this planet, none.

Assuming GJ 357 d does not transit, the only way we could characterize its atmosphere would be through some direct imaging spectroscopy. The HZ's of M dwarf systems tend to be rather close to their stars, making direct-imaging characterization of such worlds rather challenging, even to the upcoming generation of Extremely Large Telescopes that might be able to do this sort of thing.

If GJ 357 d does transit then there's the option for transmission spectroscopy -- measuring changes in the observed stellar spectrum caused by starlight filtering through the planet's atmosphere. The problem is that the signal-to-noise ratios of such measurements is not expected to be high enough to confidently detect an Earth-like atmosphere with even the upcoming JWST. The best transiting planets for such work would be in the TRAPPIST-1 system, and it's a bit of an open question whether or not the amount of time required on JWST would be worth allocating to it (i.e., observing dozens to hundreds of transits). When you start getting colder planets like GJ 357, the atmospheric scale height tends to be rather low, further challenging these sorts of observations.

Finally, there's a rather major problem with GJ 357 d in particular that really should have rendered any sensationalist headlines about its potential habitability rather moot. The planet's minimum mass is ~6 ME. With the exception of short-period planets whose density is increased due to photoevaporation, planets of this mass seem to always turn out to be more Neptune-like in their composition than Earth-like. These planets are not terrestrial planets. They probably don't have a solid surface. GJ 357 d is not a promising habitable planet candidate.

« Last Edit: 08/04/2019 05:06 pm by Hungry4info3 »

Offline ncb1397

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"Dive Into TESS's Southern Sky Panorama"
« Last Edit: 11/06/2019 10:57 pm by ncb1397 »

Offline redliox

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Although TESS is meant for relatively close stars, the fact it's sky map had the Large Magellanic Cloud under the constant observation zone in the middle felt like an opportunity.  Would TESS be able to notice much about it, given the time concentrated viewing the area?
"Let the trails lead where they may, I will follow."
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Offline Star One

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NASA - Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite ( TESS ) updates
« Reply #192 on: 12/11/2019 06:39 am »
We report on initial results from 20 days' worth of Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite spacecraft observations of comet 46P/Wirtanen. The long-duration, high-cadence measurements show a 2018 September 26 outburst that exhibited a two-phase, 0.5 mag brightening profile, and may be the best temporally characterized natural outburst ever recorded. Gas velocities from the outburst peaked at 800 ${\rm{m}}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$, while dust expanded at only 10s of ${\rm{m}}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$. Coadded images also revealed a previously unreported dust trail that extends beyond the 24° field of view.

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ab564d

NASA’s Exoplanet-Hunting Mission Catches a Natural Comet Outburst in Unprecedented Detail

Using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), astronomers at the University of Maryland (UMD), in College Park, Maryland, have captured a clear start-to-finish image sequence of an explosive emission of dust, ice and gases during the close approach of comet 46P/Wirtanen in late 2018. This is the most complete and detailed observation to date of the formation and dissipation of a naturally-occurring comet outburst. The team members reported their results in the November 22 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/nasa-s-exoplanet-hunting-mission-catches-a-natural-comet-outburst-in-unprecedented-detail
« Last Edit: 12/11/2019 06:47 am by Star One »

Offline ncb1397

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First earth sized planet in habitable zone:

Quote
NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has discovered its first Earth-size planet in its star's habitable zone, the range of distances where conditions may be just right to allow the presence of liquid water on the surface. Scientists confirmed the find, called TOI 700 d, using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and have modeled the planet's potential environments to help inform future observations.
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7569



Just need to get JWST up there now...

Offline Star One

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From Event Horizon TOI 700 d TESS’s First Earth-sized Habitable-Zone Planet with Dr. Joey Rodriguez & Dr. Andrew Vanderburg:


Offline bolun

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Meet the NASA intern who discovered a new planet on his third day

https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-51122019

Offline redliox

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TESS has begun its extended mission, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere but also more on the ecliptic.

I seem to remember there had been numerous options for missions extensions considered but can't recall the details.
"Let the trails lead where they may, I will follow."
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Offline Zed_Noir

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TESS has begun its extended mission, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere but also more on the ecliptic.

I seem to remember there had been numerous options for missions extensions considered but can't recall the details.

IIRC, the Falcon 9 lofted TESS into a better than expected orbit. So have more propellants to extended the mission by many years. Which give the mission planners more options then originally planned. Presuming the CCD detectors remains functional.

Offline Nomadd

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 There's a question I had at the beginning I can't find the answer to. Will they be targeting some of Kepler's discoveries to compare results between the two? It seems like the extra data might help reduce the SNR, or whatever they call the optical version, for both.
« Last Edit: 08/12/2020 05:55 pm by Nomadd »
Those who danced were thought to be quite insane by those who couldn't hear the music.

Offline Star One

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TESS Completes its Primary Mission:


Tags: 1x9yfw ekh 626 
 

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