Author Topic: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread  (Read 143565 times)

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #360 on: 09/20/2022 06:07 pm »
https://blogs.nasa.gov/webb/2022/09/20/mid-infrared-instrument-operations-update/

Quote
Mid-Infrared Instrument Operations Update

The James Webb Space Telescope’s Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) has four observing modes. On Aug. 24, a mechanism that supports one of these modes, known as medium-resolution spectroscopy (MRS), exhibited what appears to be increased friction during setup for a science observation. This mechanism is a grating wheel that allows scientists to select between short, medium, and longer wavelengths when making observations using the MRS mode. Following preliminary health checks and investigations into the issue, an anomaly review board was convened Sept. 6 to assess the best path forward.

The Webb team has paused in scheduling observations using this particular observing mode while they continue to analyze its behavior and are currently developing strategies to resume MRS observations as soon as possible. The observatory is in good health, and MIRI’s other three observing modes – imaging, low-resolution spectroscopy, and coronagraphy – are operating normally and remain available for science observations.

Author Thaddeus Cesari   Posted on September 20, 2022

Offline centaurinasa

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 11176
  • CETI Alpha V
  • Liked: 7486
  • Likes Given: 4222
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #361 on: 09/21/2022 09:41 am »
Quote
At an #IAC2022 plenary on JWST, NASA’s Thomas Zurbuchen mentions the MIRI filter wheel issue announced yesterday. “Taking a break” to make sure it’s working properly.
Other ongoing challenges: micrometeoroid hits at a rate of 1/month, and access to DSN during Artemis 1 mission.

https://twitter.com/jeff_foust/status/1572483735370739714?cxt=HHwWhMDR3YfoytIrAAAA
To boldly go where no human has gone before !

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #362 on: 09/21/2022 12:10 pm »
https://esawebb.org/news/weic2214/

Quote
New Webb Image Captures Clearest View of Neptune’s Rings in Decades
21 September 2022

The NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope is showing off its capabilities closer to home with its first image of Neptune. Not only has Webb captured the clearest view of this peculiar planet’s rings in more than 30 years, but its cameras are also revealing the ice giant in a whole new light.

Most striking about Webb’s new image is the crisp view of the planet’s dynamic rings — some of which haven’t been seen at all, let alone with this clarity, since the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989. In addition to several bright narrow rings, the Webb images clearly show Neptune’s fainter dust bands. Webb’s extremely stable and precise image quality also permits these very faint rings to be detected so close to Neptune.

Neptune has fascinated and perplexed researchers since its discovery in 1846. Located 30 times farther from the Sun than Earth, Neptune orbits in one of the dimmest areas of our Solar System. At that extreme distance, the Sun is so small and faint that high noon on Neptune is similar to a dim twilight on Earth.

This planet is characterised as an ice giant due to the chemical make-up of its interior. Compared to the gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune is much richer in elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. This is readily apparent in Neptune’s signature blue appearance in NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope images at visible wavelengths, caused by small amounts of gaseous methane.

Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) captures objects in the near-infrared range from 0.6 to 5 microns, so Neptune does not appear blue to Webb. In fact, the methane gas is so strongly absorbing that the planet is quite dark at Webb wavelengths except where high-altitude clouds are present. Such methane-ice clouds are prominent as bright streaks and spots, which reflect sunlight before it is absorbed by methane gas. Images from other observatories have recorded these rapidly-evolving cloud features over the years.

More subtly, a thin line of brightness circling the planet’s equator could be a visual signature of global atmospheric circulation that powers Neptune’s winds and storms. The atmosphere descends and warms at the equator, and thus glows at infrared wavelengths more than the surrounding, cooler gases.

Neptune’s 164-year orbit means its northern pole, at the top of this image, is just out of view for astronomers, but the Webb images hint at an intriguing brightness in that area. A previously-known vortex at the southern pole is evident in Webb’s view, but for the first time Webb has revealed a continuous band of clouds surrounding it.

Webb also captured seven of Neptune’s 14 known moons. Dominating this Webb portrait of Neptune is a very bright point of light sporting the signature diffraction spikes seen in many of Webb’s images; it’s not a star, but Neptune’s most unusual moon, Triton.

Covered in a frozen sheen of condensed nitrogen, Triton reflects an average of 70 percent of the sunlight that hits it. It far outshines Neptune because the planet’s atmosphere is darkened by methane absorption at Webb’s wavelengths. Triton orbits Neptune in a bizarre backward (retrograde) orbit, leading astronomers to speculate that this moon was actually a Kuiper Belt object that was gravitationally captured by Neptune. Additional Webb studies of both Triton and Neptune are planned in the coming year.

More information

Webb is the largest, most powerful telescope ever launched into space. Under an international collaboration agreement, ESA provided the telescope’s launch service, using the Ariane 5 launch vehicle. Working with partners, ESA was responsible for the development and qualification of Ariane 5 adaptations for the Webb mission and for the procurement of the launch service by Arianespace. ESA also provided the workhorse spectrograph NIRSpec and 50% of the mid-infrared instrument MIRI, which was designed and built by a consortium of nationally funded European Institutes (The MIRI European Consortium) in partnership with JPL and the University of Arizona.

Webb is an international partnership between NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

Image Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, and STScI
« Last Edit: 09/21/2022 12:12 pm by FutureSpaceTourist »

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #363 on: 09/21/2022 12:13 pm »
twitter.com/nasawebb/status/1572558256689618944

Quote
In visible light, Neptune appears blue due to small amounts of methane gas in its atmosphere. Webb’s NIRCam instrument instead observed Neptune at near-infrared wavelengths, so Neptune doesn’t look so blue!

https://twitter.com/nasawebb/status/1572558267586322434

Quote
That’s no star. It’s Neptune’s large, unusual moon, Triton! Because Triton is covered in frozen, condensed nitrogen, it reflects 70% of the sunlight that hits it — making it appear very bright to Webb. 6 of Neptune’s other moons (labeled) are also seen here.
« Last Edit: 09/21/2022 12:15 pm by FutureSpaceTourist »

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #364 on: 09/27/2022 02:42 pm »
https://twitter.com/nasawebb/status/1574761039270395904

Quote
Space, but make it goth! 🕸️

If this new image from Webb’s mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) looks dark & moody, that's because things look different in this light than what you may be used to. These are the "bones” of galaxy IC 5332, usually hidden by dust: https://bit.ly/3dSuzrj

twitter.com/nasawebb/status/1574761050154614786

Quote
In visible and ultraviolet light, @NASAHubble (left) shows dark regions of dust that separate the spiral arms. Webb (right) is able to peer through that dust in mid-infrared light, instead seeing patterns of gas that echo the arms’ shape.

https://twitter.com/nasawebb/status/1574761051949768705

Quote
Different stars shine brighter at different wavelengths of light — so some stars are clearer in @NASAHubble’s view, while others are more visible with Webb. Taken together, these two views provide us a more complete understanding of galaxy IC 5332’s structure and composition.

Offline Star One

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 13459
  • UK
  • Liked: 3734
  • Likes Given: 220
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #365 on: 09/29/2022 04:48 pm »
James Webb Space Telescope spots 'Sparkler Galaxy' that could host universe's 1st stars

Quote
The first science-quality image revealed from NASA's newest space telescope contained a hidden treasure in the form of a sparking distant galaxy surrounded by dense clusters that could contain some of the universe's first stars.

https://www.space.com/james-webb-space-telescope-sparkler-galaxy

Offline Targeteer

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 5254
  • near hangar 18
  • Liked: 2222
  • Likes Given: 814
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #366 on: 09/30/2022 04:11 pm »
https://esawebb.org/news/weic2215/

weic2215 — Photo Release
Webb and Hubble Capture Detailed Views of DART Impact
First Time Webb, Hubble Make Simultaneous Observations of the Same Target

29 September 2022

Two of the great observatories, the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, have captured views of a unique experiment to smash a spacecraft into a small asteroid. NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) impact observations mark the first time that Webb and Hubble were used to simultaneously observe the same celestial target.

On 27 September 2022 at 01:14 CEST, DART intentionally crashed into Dimorphos, the asteroid moonlet in the double-asteroid system of Didymos. It was the world’s first test of the kinetic impact technique using a spacecraft to deflect an asteroid by modifying the object’s orbit. DART is a test for defending Earth against potential asteroid or comet hazards.

The observations are more than just an operational milestone for each telescope—there are also key science questions relating to the makeup and history of our solar system that researchers can explore when combining the capabilities of these observatories.

Observations from Webb and Hubble together will allow scientists to gain knowledge about the nature of the surface of Dimorphos, how much material was ejected by the collision, and how fast it was ejected. Additionally, observing the impact across a wide array of wavelengths between Webb and Hubble will reveal the distribution of particle sizes in the expanding dust cloud, helping to determine whether it threw off lots of big chunks or mostly fine dust. Combining this information will help scientists to understand how effectively a kinetic impact can modify an asteroid’s orbit.
Webb Captures Impact Site Before and After Collision

Webb took one observation of the impact location before the collision took place, then several observations over the next few hours. Images from Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) show a tight, compact core, with plumes of material appearing as wisps streaming away from  the centre of where the impact took place.

Observing the impact with Webb presented the flight operations, planning, and science teams with very unique challenges. Because of the asteroid’s speed of travel across the sky, the teams worked in the weeks leading up to the impact to enable and test a method of tracking asteroids moving over 3 times faster than the original speed limit set for Webb.

Scientists also plan to observe the asteroid in the coming months using Webb’s Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) and Webb’s Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). Spectroscopic data will provide researchers with insight into the asteroid’s chemical composition.

Webb observed the impact over five hours total and captured 10 images. The data were collected as part of Webb’s Cycle 1 Guaranteed Time Observation Program 1245 led by Heidi Hammel of Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA).
Hubble Images Show Movement of Ejecta After Impact

Hubble also managed to capture observations of the moonlet ahead of the impact, then again 15 minutes after DART met the surface of Dimorphos. Images from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 show the impact in visible light. Ejecta from the impact appear as rays stretching out from the body of the asteroid. The bolder, fanned-out spike of ejecta to the left of the asteroid is where DART impacted.

Some of the rays appear to be curved slightly, but astronomers need to take a closer look to determine what this could mean. In the Hubble images, astronomers estimate that the brightness of Didymos increased by 3 times after impact, and are also particularly intrigued by how that brightness then held steady, even eight hours after impact.

Hubble will monitor Dimorphos ten more times over the next three weeks. These regular, relatively long-term observations as the ejecta cloud expands and fades over time will paint a more complete picture of the cloud’s expansion from the ejection to its disappearance.

Hubble captured 45 images in the time immediately before and following DART’s impact with Dimorphos. The Hubble data was collected as part of Cycle 29 General Observers Program 16674.
Follow Up with ESA’s Hera Mission

Due to launch in October 2024, ESA’s Hera mission will perform a detailed post-impact survey of the target asteroid Dimorphos. Hera will turn the grand-scale experiment into a well-understood and repeatable planetary defence technique that might one day be carried out for real.

Just like Webb and Hubble, NASA’s DART and ESA’s Hera missions are a great example of what international collaboration can achieve: the two missions are supported by the same teams of scientists and astronomers, and take place through an international collaboration called AIDA – the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment.

NASA and ESA worked together in the early 2000s to develop asteroid monitoring systems, but recognised there was a missing link in the chain from asteroid threat identification to ways of addressing that threat. In response NASA oversaw the DART mission while ESA developed the Hera mission to gather additional data on DART’s impact. With the Hera mission, ESA is assuming even greater responsibility for protecting our planet and ensuring that Europe plays a leading role in the common effort to tackle asteroid risks. As Europe’s flagship planetary defender, Hera is supported through the Agency’s Space Safety programme, part of the Operations Directorate. Read about future plans to be proposed at ESA’s Council at Ministerial Level this November.
More information

The James Webb Space Telescope is an international partnership between NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

Webb is the largest, most powerful telescope ever launched into space. Under an international collaboration agreement, ESA provided the telescope’s launch service, using the Ariane 5 launch vehicle. Working with partners, ESA was responsible for the development and qualification of Ariane 5 adaptations for the Webb mission and for the procurement of the launch service by Arianespace. ESA also provided the workhorse spectrograph NIRSpec and 50% of the mid-infrared instrument MIRI, which was designed and built by a consortium of nationally funded European Institutes (The MIRI European Consortium) in partnership with JPL and the University of Arizona.

Image Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, and STScI
Links

    Collection of Webb’s First Images
    ESA Webb Seeing Farther Interactive Brochure
    Hera Mission
    DART Mission
    ESA’s Vision for Space Safety
    Release on STScI website
    Release on NASA website
Best quote heard during an inspection, "I was unaware that I was the only one who was aware."

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #367 on: 10/08/2022 03:42 pm »
Start of long twitter thread:

twitter.com/markmccaughrean/status/1578415313330343937

Quote
"Hello darkness, my old friend"

A tiny snippet from our new #JWST data, showing a planetary system in the making, floating in space & silhouetted against the bright background light of the Orion Nebula.

1/

https://twitter.com/markmccaughrean/status/1578416129596325888

Quote
The system comprises a young star, about 1 million years old, surrounded by a dense disk of gas & dust from which planets may be being built.

Seen edge-on from our perspective, the dust in the disk blocks light coming from the bright background nebula, making a silhouette.

2/

Offline Star One

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 13459
  • UK
  • Liked: 3734
  • Likes Given: 220
NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #368 on: 10/11/2022 04:53 pm »
Such is the life scientific.

‘Bit of Panic’: Astronomers Forced to Rethink Early JWST Findings

Quote
Astronomers have been so keen to use the new James Webb Space Telescope that some have got a little ahead of themselves. Many started analysing Webb data right after the first batch was released, on 14 July, and quickly posted their results on preprint servers—but are now having to revise them. The telescope’s detectors had not been calibrated thoroughly when the first data were made available, and that fact slipped past some astronomers in their excitement.
The revisions don’t so far appear to substantially change many of the exciting early results, such as the discovery of a number of candidates for the most distant galaxy ever spotted. But the ongoing calibration process is forcing astronomers to reckon with the limitations of early data from Webb.
Figuring out how to redo the work is “thorny and annoying”, says Marco Castellano, an astronomer at the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics in Rome. “There’s been a lot of frustration,” says Garth Illingworth, an astronomer at the University of California, Santa Cruz. “I don’t think anybody really expected this to be as big of an issue as it’s becoming,” adds Guido Roberts-Borsani, an astronomer at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Quote
Working with Webb data involves several types of calibration, but the current controversy is around one of the telescope’s main instruments, its Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). In the six months after Webb launched, STScI researchers worked to calibrate NIRCam. But given the demands on Webb, they had only enough time to point it at one or two calibration stars, and to take data using just one of NIRCam’s ten detectors. They then estimated the calibrations for the other nine detectors. “That’s where there was a problem,” Boyer says. “Each detector will be a little bit different.”

Quote
To try to standardize all the measurements, the STScI is working through a detailed plan to point Webb at several types of well-understood star, and observe them with every detector in every mode for every instrument on the telescope. “It just takes a while,” says Karl Gordon, an astronomer at the STScI who helps lead the effort.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bit-of-panic-astronomers-forced-to-rethink-early-jwst-findings/
« Last Edit: 10/11/2022 04:57 pm by Star One »

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #369 on: 10/19/2022 02:37 pm »
https://twitter.com/nasawebb/status/1582736008260440066

Quote
This is what you’ve waited for.

Journey with us through Webb’s breathtaking view of the Pillars of Creation, where scores of newly formed stars glisten like dewdrops among floating, translucent columns of gas and dust: go.nasa.gov/3EPPiXW

Here’s your guided tour ⬇️

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #370 on: 10/19/2022 02:46 pm »
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2022/nasa-s-webb-takes-star-filled-portrait-of-pillars-of-creation

Quote
Oct 19, 2022

NASA’s Webb Takes Star-Filled Portrait of Pillars of Creation

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has captured a lush, highly detailed landscape – the iconic Pillars of Creation – where new stars are forming within dense clouds of gas and dust. The three-dimensional pillars look like majestic rock formations, but are far more permeable. These columns are made up of cool interstellar gas and dust that appear – at times – semi-transparent in near-infrared light.

Webb’s new view of the Pillars of Creation, which were first made famous when imaged by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope in 1995, will help researchers revamp their models of star formation by identifying far more precise counts of newly formed stars, along with the quantities of gas and dust in the region. Over time, they will begin to build a clearer understanding of how stars form and burst out of these dusty clouds over millions of years.

Newly formed stars are the scene-stealers in this image from Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam). These are the bright red orbs that typically have diffraction spikes and lie outside one of the dusty pillars. When knots with sufficient mass form within the pillars of gas and dust, they begin to collapse under their own gravity, slowly heat up, and eventually form new stars.

What about those wavy lines that look like lava at the edges of some pillars? These are ejections from stars that are still forming within the gas and dust. Young stars periodically shoot out supersonic jets that collide with clouds of material, like these thick pillars. This sometimes also results in bow shocks, which can form wavy patterns like a boat does as it moves through water. The crimson glow comes from the energetic hydrogen molecules that result from jets and shocks. This is evident in the second and third pillars from the top – the NIRCam image is practically pulsing with their activity. These young stars are estimated to be only a few hundred thousand years old.

Although it may appear that near-infrared light has allowed Webb to “pierce through” the clouds to reveal great cosmic distances beyond the pillars, there are no galaxies in this view. Instead, a mix of translucent gas and dust known as the interstellar medium in the densest part of our Milky Way galaxy’s disk blocks our view of the deeper universe.

This scene was first imaged by Hubble in 1995 and revisited in 2014, but many other observatories have also stared deeply at this region. Each advanced instrument offers researchers new details about this region, which is practically overflowing with stars.

This tightly cropped image is set within the vast Eagle Nebula, which lies 6,500 light-years away.



Take a video tour of Webb’s near-infrared light view of the Pillars of Creation. Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI; Joseph DePasquale (STScI), Anton M. Koekemoer (STScI), Alyssa Pagan (STScI); Danielle Kirshenblat (STScI).

The James Webb Space Telescope is the world's premier space science observatory. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and CSA (Canadian Space Agency).

First image caption:

Quote
The Pillars of Creation are set off in a kaleidoscope of color in NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope’s near-infrared-light view. The pillars look like arches and spires rising out of a desert landscape, but are filled with semi-transparent gas and dust, and ever changing. This is a region where young stars are forming – or have barely burst from their dusty cocoons as they continue to form.
Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI; Joseph DePasquale (STScI), Anton M. Koekemoer (STScI), Alyssa Pagan (STScI).

Second image caption:

Quote
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope made the Pillars of Creation famous with its first image in 1995, but revisited the scene in 2014 to reveal a sharper, wider view in visible light, shown above at left. A new, near-infrared-light view from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, at right, helps us peer through more of the dust in this star-forming region. The thick, dusty brown pillars are no longer as opaque and many more red stars that are still forming come into view.
Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI; Joseph DePasquale (STScI), Anton M. Koekemoer (STScI), Alyssa Pagan (STScI).

Offline su27k

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 6309
  • Liked: 8903
  • Likes Given: 872
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #371 on: 11/07/2022 01:32 am »
Should Webb telescope’s data be open to all?

Quote from: Science
The $10 billion James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has been observing for less than 4 months, but already a storm is brewing over access to its data. Webb images and spectra all end up in an archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, yet most of them aren’t freely available until 1 year after the data were collected. This gives the researchers who proposed the observations time to analyze them and publish results without being scooped.

But some astronomers question the practice, arguing that data from federally funded projects should be free for all to use. NASA, Webb’s primary backer, is facing an open data push from the White House and may soon end the restriction. Having so much Webb data locked away “doesn’t pass the smell test. It’s just not right,” says astronomer Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz, who from 2009 to 2017 chaired a committee advising STScI on Webb’s future science operations.

Offline Nomadd

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 8572
  • Highway Whatever
  • Liked: 58385
  • Likes Given: 1142
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #372 on: 11/08/2022 10:45 pm »
  It looks like the extra friction on MIRI's grating wheel won't be too much of a problem.
 
"After weeks of intensive work, the team concluded that the most likely root cause of the observed issue is increased contact forces between the wheel central bearing assembly’s sub-components under certain conditions. Based on this, a set of recommendations on how to use the affected mechanism during science operations is being defined.
An engineering test demonstrating new operational parameters for the grating wheel mechanism was successfully executed on November 2, 2022. MIRI is resuming MRS science observations"

https://www.stsci.edu/contents/news/jwst/2022/miri-medium-resolution-spectroscopy-is-returning-to-science-observations
« Last Edit: 11/08/2022 10:47 pm by Nomadd »
Those who danced were thought to be quite insane by those who couldn't hear the music.

Offline su27k

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 6309
  • Liked: 8903
  • Likes Given: 872
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #373 on: 11/11/2022 12:52 pm »
NASA Telescope, Moon Rocket Named TIME Inventions of 2022

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope and Space Launch System (SLS) rocket were named 2022 TIME Inventions of the Year. NASA led the international Webb partnership with ESA (European Space Agency) and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The agency’s SLS rocket, the world’s most powerful rocket, is designed to send humans to the Moon on Artemis missions for the benefit of humanity. TIME made the announcement Thursday, Nov. 10.

“We designed the Webb observatory to see the first lights that turned on in our universe.  When I saw the first images released, I was struck with awe, wonder, and the satisfaction of knowing that whatever is out there, Webb will see it,” said Mike Menzel, NASA mission systems engineer for Webb at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. TIME named Webb a Best Invention in the “Design” category.

The SLS rocket is planned to launch on its first flight test for the Artemis I mission, Wednesday, Nov. 16, to send an uncrewed Orion spacecraft around the Moon and back to Earth to thoroughly test systems before missions with astronauts. SLS is the only rocket capable of launching humans in Orion along with their supplies to the Moon and beyond. TIME named SLS a Best Invention in the “Experimental” category.

“We will demonstrate the capability of the Space Launch System Moon rocket, the largest rocket NASA has built since the Saturn V, on the Artemis I mission,” said John Honeycutt, SLS program manager at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. “The heavy-lift rocket’s innovative design allows it to evolve and become even more powerful so that it can carry both astronauts and large cargos on increasingly more complex missions to the Moon and Mars.”

Launched Dec. 25, 2021, from French Guiana, the Webb telescope has already been uncovering previously unseen views and hidden secrets of the universe. Webb has seen early galaxies, provided a new look at planets in our own solar system, and peered through dusty clouds to see stars forming, such as in the Pillars of Creation.

NASA Headquarters, Washington oversees the Webb telescope mission. NASA Goddard manages Webb for the agency and oversees work on the mission performed by the Space Telescope Science Institute, Northrop Grumman, and other mission partners. In addition to Goddard, several NASA centers contributed to the project, including the agency’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Jet Propulsion Laboratory in southern California, Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley, and others.

With its unprecedented power and capabilities, the SLS rocket provides the foundation for NASA’s Artemis missions to the Moon. SLS makes it possible to launch the Orion spacecraft, which is built in partnership with ESA, on missions to the Moon that will provide the knowledge for humans to travel to Mars. SLS is built with a combination of proven systems and innovative manufacturing. To fulfill America’s future needs for deep space missions, SLS will evolve into increasingly more powerful configurations.

SLS is America’s rocket and more than 1,000 companies in 45 states contributed to the rocket managed by Marshall, which oversees the work by lead contractors Boeing, Notrthrop Grumman, Aerojet Rocketdyne and other companies. Currently, NASA and its industry partners are in the process of building rockets for four more Artemis missions. All NASA Centers have played a role in the Artemis missions, which are launching a new era of human deep space exploration. 

For more information about the Webb mission, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/webb

For more information about the SLS rocket mission, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/sls

Offline jbenton

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 398
  • Liked: 145
  • Likes Given: 658
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #374 on: 11/13/2022 06:44 pm »
https://www.space.com/james-webb-space-telescope-wlm-dwarf-galaxy-image

Quote
James Webb Space Telescope peers into lonely dwarf galaxy with sparkling results

The most powerful space telescope currently operating has zoomed in on a lonely dwarf galaxy in our galactic neighborhood, imaging it in stunning detail.

At around 3 million light-years from Earth, the dwarf galaxy, named Wolf–Lundmark–Melotte (WLM) for three astronomers instrumental in its discovery, is close enough that the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) can distinguish individual stars while still being able to study large numbers of stars simultaneously. The dwarf galaxy, in the constellation of Cetus, is one of the most remote members of the local galaxy group that contains our galaxy. Its isolated nature and lack of interactions with other galaxies, including the Milky Way, make WLM useful in the study of how stars evolve in smaller galaxies.

"We think WLM hasn't interacted with other systems, which makes it really nice for testing our theories of galaxy formation and evolution," Kristen McQuinn, an astronomer at Rutgers University in New Jersey and lead scientist on the research project, said in a statement from the Space Telescope Science Institute in Maryland, which operates the observatory. "Many of the other nearby galaxies are intertwined and entangled with the Milky Way, which makes them harder to study."

...

McQuinn pointed out a second reason WLM is an intriguing target: its gas is very similar to that of galaxies in the early universe, without any elements heavier than hydrogen and helium.

But whereas the gas of those early galaxies never contained heavier elements, the gas in WLM has lost its share of these elements to a phenomenon called galactic winds. These winds stem from supernovas, or exploding stars; because WLM has so little mass, these winds can push material out of the dwarf galaxy.

...

McQuinn's team is currently developing a software tool that everyone will be able to use that can measure the brightness of all the individually resolved stars in the NIRCam images, she said.

"This is a bedrock tool for astronomers around the world," she said. "If you want to do anything with resolved stars that are crowded together on the sky, you need a tool like this."

The team's WLM research is currently awaiting peer-review.

Offline Targeteer

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 5254
  • near hangar 18
  • Liked: 2222
  • Likes Given: 814
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #375 on: 11/15/2022 10:12 pm »
November 15, 2022
MEDIA ADVISORY M22-172
Experts Available to Discuss NASA Webb Telescope Science Results


Experts from NASA and other institutions will be available by teleconference at 11 a.m. EST on Thursday, Nov. 17, to answer media questions about early science results from the agency’s James Webb Space Telescope.

The agency will livestream audio of the teleconference on its website.

Participants will answer questions about distant galaxy research with Webb so far, including new results that will be available before the teleconference at 10 a.m. online at:

https://www.nasa.gov/webb

Since Webb began its mission in July to explore every phase of cosmic history, the observatory has seen early galaxies, provided a new look at planets both inside and outside our solar system, and peered through dusty clouds to see stars forming, such as in the Pillars of Creation.

Teleconference participants include:

    Jane Rigby, Webb operations project scientist, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center
    Tommaso Treu, principal investigator for the GLASS-JWST Early Release Science Program and professor at the University of California at Los Angeles
    Alaina Henry, GLASS-JWST co-investigator and Webb instrument scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute
    Jeyhan Kartaltepe, co-investigator for the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science Survey and associate professor at the Rochester Institute of Technology
    Garth Illingworth, co-investigator for the First Reionization Epoch Spectroscopic Complete and Public Release IMaging for Extragalactic Research galaxy surveys and professor at the University of California Santa Cruz

To ask questions during the teleconference, media must RSVP no later than two hours before the event to Alise Fisher at: [email protected] NASA’s media accreditation policy is available online.

Webb is an international partnership with ESA (European Space Agency) and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The observatory launched Dec. 25, 2021, from Europe’s Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, followed by a months-long process to unfold into its final form in space and align its mirrors. In July, NASA and its partners released Webb’s first full-color images and the world’s most powerful space telescope began its official science mission.

For more information about the Webb mission, visit:

https://nasa.gov/webb
Best quote heard during an inspection, "I was unaware that I was the only one who was aware."

Offline JayWee

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 853
  • Liked: 782
  • Likes Given: 1372
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #376 on: 11/15/2022 11:21 pm »
A video interview: JWST, LUVOIR and Mind-blowing Future Projects with Lee Feinberg, Optical Telescope Element Manager



Offline jbenton

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 398
  • Liked: 145
  • Likes Given: 658
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #377 on: 11/17/2022 02:50 pm »
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2022/nasa-s-webb-catches-fiery-hourglass-as-new-star-forms

Quote
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has revealed the once-hidden features of the protostar within the dark cloud L1527, providing insight into the beginnings of a new star. These blazing clouds within the Taurus star-forming region are only visible in infrared light, making it an ideal target for Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam).

The protostar itself is hidden from view within the “neck” of this hourglass shape. An edge-on protoplanetary disk is seen as a dark line across the middle of the neck. Light from the protostar leaks above and below this disk, illuminating cavities within the surrounding gas and dust.

The region’s most prevalent features, the clouds colored blue and orange in this representative-color infrared image, outline cavities created as material shoots away from the protostar and collides with surrounding matter. The colors themselves are due to layers of dust between Webb and the clouds. The blue areas are where the dust is thinnest. The thicker the layer of dust, the less blue light is able to escape, creating pockets of orange.

Webb also reveals filaments of molecular hydrogen that have been shocked as the protostar ejects material away from it. Shocks and turbulence inhibit the formation of new stars, which would otherwise form all throughout the cloud. As a result, the protostar dominates the space, taking much of the material for itself.

Despite the chaos that L1527 causes, it’s only about 100,000 years old - a relatively young body. Given its age and its brightness in far-infrared light as observed by missions like the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, L1527 is considered a class 0 protostar, the earliest stage of star formation. Protostars like these, which are still cocooned in a dark cloud of dust and gas, have a long way to go before they become full-fledged stars. L1527 doesn’t generate its own energy through nuclear fusion of hydrogen yet, an essential characteristic of stars. Its shape, while mostly spherical, is also unstable, taking the form of a small, hot, and puffy clump of gas somewhere between 20 and 40% the mass of our Sun.
...

***

On another note, I know this is an update thread, but I just wanted to say that the interview that JayWee posted is absolutely worth watching (if you have the time).
A video interview: JWST, LUVOIR and Mind-blowing Future Projects with Lee Feinberg, Optical Telescope Element Manager
[snip]
In addition to discussing JWST itself, Feinberg talks about how experience with JWST operations is informing the design of the next UVOIR flagship (for instance, discussions of whether to have a JWST-style sunshade - better for infrared observations - or a cylindrical baffle - which is better for micrometeor protection) as well as how future quantum computers could make Interferometry for visible-light telescopes easier (if I understood that correctly) and the amazing capabilities that would unlock.

Here's more information on Lee Feinberg's background:
https://webb.nasa.gov/content/meetTheTeam/people/feinberg.html
« Last Edit: 11/17/2022 03:53 pm by jbenton »

Online FutureSpaceTourist

  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33456
  • UK
    • Plan 28
  • Liked: 58822
  • Likes Given: 26298
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #378 on: 11/17/2022 03:13 pm »


Quote
Experts will be available by teleconference to answer media questions about early science results from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope
« Last Edit: 11/17/2022 03:14 pm by FutureSpaceTourist »

Offline Mongo62

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 1069
  • Liked: 827
  • Likes Given: 156
Re: NASA - James Webb Space Telescope - Updates Thread
« Reply #379 on: 11/22/2022 12:53 pm »
Early Release Science of the exoplanet WASP-39b with JWST NIRSpec PRISM

Transmission spectroscopy of exoplanets has revealed signatures of water vapor, aerosols, and alkali metals in a few dozen exoplanet atmospheres. However, these previous inferences with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes were hindered by the observations' relatively narrow wavelength range and spectral resolving power, which precluded the unambiguous identification of other chemical species−in particular the primary carbon-bearing molecules. Here we report a broad-wavelength 0.5-5.5 μm atmospheric transmission spectrum of WASP-39 b, a 1200 K, roughly Saturn-mass, Jupiter-radius exoplanet, measured with JWST NIRSpec's PRISM mode as part of the JWST Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science Team program. We robustly detect multiple chemical species at high significance, including Na (19σ), H2O (33σ), CO2 (28σ), and CO (7σ). The non-detection of CH4, combined with a strong CO2 feature, favours atmospheric models with a super-solar atmospheric metallicity. An unanticipated absorption feature at 4μm is best explained by SO2 (2.7σ), which could be a tracer of atmospheric photochemistry. These observations demonstrate JWST's sensitivity to a rich diversity of exoplanet compositions and chemical processes.

Early Release Science of the Exoplanet WASP-39b with JWST NIRSpec G395H

Measuring the abundances of carbon and oxygen in exoplanet atmospheres is considered a crucial avenue for unlocking the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems. Access to an exoplanet's chemical inventory requires high-precision observations, often inferred from individual molecular detections with low-resolution space-based and high-resolution ground-based facilities. Here we report the medium-resolution (R∼600) transmission spectrum of an exoplanet atmosphere between 3-5 μm covering multiple absorption features for the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b, obtained with JWST NIRSpec G395H. Our observations achieve 1.46x photon precision, providing an average transit depth uncertainty of 221 ppm per spectroscopic bin, and present minimal impacts from systematic effects. We detect significant absorption from CO2 (28.5σ) and H2O (21.5σ), and identify SO2 as the source of absorption at 4.1 μm (4.8σ). Best-fit atmospheric models range between 3 and 10x solar metallicity, with sub-solar to solar C/O ratios. These results, including the detection of SO2, underscore the importance of characterising the chemistry in exoplanet atmospheres, and showcase NIRSpec G395H as an excellent mode for time series observations over this critical wavelength range.

Early Release Science of the exoplanet WASP-39b with JWST NIRCam

Measuring the metallicity and carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratio in exoplanet atmospheres is a fundamental step towards constraining the dominant chemical processes at work and, if in equilibrium, revealing planet formation histories. Transmission spectroscopy provides the necessary means by constraining the abundances of oxygen- and carbon-bearing species; however, this requires broad wavelength coverage, moderate spectral resolution, and high precision that, together, are not achievable with previous observatories. Now that JWST has commenced science operations, we are able to observe exoplanets at previously uncharted wavelengths and spectral resolutions. Here we report time-series observations of the transiting exoplanet WASP-39b using JWST's Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam). The long-wavelength spectroscopic and short-wavelength photometric light curves span 2.0 - 4.0 μm, exhibit minimal systematics, and reveal well-defined molecular absorption features in the planet's spectrum. Specifically, we detect gaseous H2O in the atmosphere and place an upper limit on the abundance of CH4. The otherwise prominent CO2 feature at 2.8 μm is largely masked by H2O. The best-fit chemical equilibrium models favour an atmospheric metallicity of 1-100× solar (i.e., an enrichment of elements heavier than helium relative to the Sun) and a sub-stellar carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratio. The inferred high metallicity and low C/O ratio may indicate significant accretion of solid materials during planet formation or disequilibrium processes in the upper atmosphere.

Early Release Science of the exoplanet WASP-39b with JWST NIRISS

Transmission spectroscopy provides insight into the atmospheric properties and consequently the formation history, physics, and chemistry of transiting exoplanets. However, obtaining precise inferences of atmospheric properties from transmission spectra requires simultaneously measuring the strength and shape of multiple spectral absorption features from a wide range of chemical species. This has been challenging given the precision and wavelength coverage of previous observatories. Here, we present the transmission spectrum of the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b obtained using the SOSS mode of the NIRISS instrument on the JWST. This spectrum spans 0.6−2.8μm in wavelength and reveals multiple water absorption bands, the potassium resonance doublet, as well as signatures of clouds. The precision and broad wavelength coverage of NIRISS-SOSS allows us to break model degeneracies between cloud properties and the atmospheric composition of WASP-39b, favoring a heavy element enhancement ("metallicity") of ∼10−30× the solar value, a sub-solar carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratio, and a solar-to-super-solar potassium-to-oxygen (K/O) ratio. The observations are best explained by wavelength-dependent, non-gray clouds with inhomogeneous coverage of the planet's terminator.

Direct Evidence of Photochemistry in an Exoplanet Atmosphere

Photochemistry is a fundamental process of planetary atmospheres that is integral to habitability, atmospheric composition and stability, and aerosol formation. However, no unambiguous photochemical products have been detected in exoplanet atmospheres to date. Here we show that photochemically produced sulphur dioxide (SO2) is present in the atmosphere of the hot, giant exoplanet WASP-39b, as constrained by data from the JWST Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Program and informed by a suite of photochemical models. We find that SO2 is produced by successive oxidation of sulphur radicals freed when hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is destroyed. The SO2 distribution computed by the photochemical models robustly explains the 4.05 μm spectral feature seen in JWST transmission spectra [Rustamkulov et al.(submitted), Alderson et al.(submitted)] and leads to observable features at ultraviolet and thermal infrared wavelengths not available from the current observations. The sensitivity of the SO2 feature to the enrichment of heavy elements in the atmosphere ("metallicity") suggests that it can be used as a powerful tracer of atmospheric properties, with our results implying a metallicity of ∼10× solar for WASP-39b. Through providing improved constraints on bulk metallicity and sulphur abundance, the detection of SO2 opens a new avenue for the investigation of giant-planet formation. Our work demonstrates that sulphur photochemistry may be readily observable for exoplanets with super-solar metallicity and equilibrium temperatures ≳750 K. The confirmation of photochemistry through the agreement between theoretical predictions and observational data is pivotal for further atmospheric characterisation studies.

Tags:
 

Advertisement NovaTech
Advertisement SkyTale Software GmbH
Advertisement Northrop Grumman
Advertisement
Advertisement Brady Kenniston
Advertisement NextSpaceflight
Advertisement Nathan Barker Photography
1