Author Topic: NASA - Juno - Updates  (Read 305308 times)

Offline Blackstar

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #720 on: 05/17/2023 07:08 pm »
Depends what you mean by 'most volcanic'. Certainly Io is the most volcanically active at the present time,

Geologists like to talk in terms of geologic time, which gives them 100-million-year error bars.


Offline Phil Stooke

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #721 on: 05/17/2023 07:11 pm »
"(NB Earth is not a celestial body.)"

Really?  Did the Copernican revolution pass you by?

"one theory is that Venus periodically resurfaces the entire surface of the planet at once"

No, that's a hypothesis.  Ongoing local to regional resurfacing can have the same result.

For the record, Io is the most active celestial body that we know of in our solar system.  Is... present tense.  No ambiguity.
« Last Edit: 05/17/2023 07:15 pm by Phil Stooke »

Offline CuddlyRocket

Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #722 on: 05/17/2023 11:17 pm »
"(NB Earth is not a celestial body.)"

Really?  Did the Copernican revolution pass you by?

The Copernican revolution has nothing to do with whether the Earth is a celestial body or not! A celestial body is one that is 'in the heavens' from the point of view of people on Earth. Earth itself is obviously not in the heavens. You can see this usage in, for example, the Outer Space Treaty which, inter alia, states (Article II) "Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means." The article obviously does not include the Earth.

Offline Blackstar

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #723 on: 05/18/2023 03:21 pm »
The flyby of Io was on Tuesday. Any indication of images coming in yet?

Online ugordan

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #724 on: 05/18/2023 03:35 pm »
The flyby of Io was on Tuesday. Any indication of images coming in yet?

http://www.unmannedspaceflight.com/index.php?showtopic=8762&view=findpost&p=260613

Images processed by Jason Perry, aka volcanopele


Offline Targeteer

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Best quote heard during an inspection, "I was unaware that I was the only one who was aware."

Offline Targeteer

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #726 on: 05/23/2023 04:36 am »
https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap230523.html

 Jupiter's Swirls from Juno
Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS; Processing & License: Kevin M. Gill

Explanation: Big storms are different on Jupiter. On Earth, huge hurricanes and colossal cyclones are centered on regions of low pressure, but on Jupiter, it is the high-pressure, anti-cyclone storms that are the largest. On Earth, large storms can last weeks, but on Jupiter they can last years. On Earth, large storms can be as large as a country, but on Jupiter, large storms can be as large as planet Earth. Both types of storms are known to exhibit lightning. The featured image of Jupiter's clouds was composed from images and data captured by the robotic Juno spacecraft as it swooped close to the massive planet in August 2020.  A swirling white oval is visible nearby, while numerous smaller cloud swirls extend into the distance.  On Jupiter, light-colored clouds are usually higher up than dark clouds. Despite their differences, studying storm clouds on distant Jupiter provides insights into storms and other weather patterns on familiar Earth. 
« Last Edit: 05/23/2023 04:42 am by Targeteer »
Best quote heard during an inspection, "I was unaware that I was the only one who was aware."

Offline Blackstar

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #727 on: 05/23/2023 11:15 am »

Offline Blackstar

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Offline Targeteer

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #729 on: 07/27/2023 09:04 am »
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-juno-is-getting-ever-closer-to-jupiters-moon-io

NASA’s Juno Is Getting Ever Closer to Jupiter’s Moon Io
July 26, 2023
Photo illustration of Jupiter and the three Jovian moons

The spinning, solar-powered spacecraft will take another look of the fiery Jovian moon on July 30.

When NASA’s Juno mission flies by Jupiter’s fiery moon Io on Sunday, July 30, the spacecraft will be making its closest approach yet, coming within 13,700 miles (22,000 kilometers) of it. Data collected by the Italian-built JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) and other science instruments is expected to provide a wealth of information on the hundreds of erupting volcanoes pouring out molten lava and sulfurous gases all over the volcano-festooned moon.

“While JIRAM was designed to look at Jupiter’s polar aurora, its capability to identify heat sources is proving to be indispensable in our hunt for active volcanos on Io,” said Juno Principal Investigator Scott Bolton of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “As we get closer with each flyby, JIRAM and other instruments aboard Juno add to our library of data on the moon, allowing us to not only better resolve surface features but understand how they change over time.”

Launched in 2011, the spinning, solar-powered spacecraft has been studying the Jovian system since 2016 and will begin the third year of its extended mission on July 31.
Io’s Hot Spots

Slightly larger than Earth’s moon, Io is a world in constant torment. Not only is the biggest planet in the solar system forever pulling at it gravitationally, but so are Io’s Galilean siblings – Europa and the biggest moon in the solar system, Ganymede. The result is that Io is continuously stretched and squeezed, actions linked to the creation of the lava seen erupting from its many volcanoes.

During Juno’s last flyby of Io, which occurred May 16, the JunoCam imager took a picture from 22,100 miles (35,600 kilometers) showing a smudge at the moon’s Volund region, near the equator. Such smudges are smoking guns to planetary scientists.

“When I compared it to visible-light images taken of the same area during Galileo and New Horizons flybys (in 1999 and 2007), I was excited to see changes at Volund, where the lava flow field had expanded to the west and another volcano just north of Volund had fresh lava flows surrounding it,” said Jason Perry of the University of Arizona’s HiRISE Operations Center in Tucson. “Io is known for its extreme volcanic activity, but after 16 years, it is so nice to see these changes up close again.

During that same May 16 pass, JIRAM found a smoking gun of its own. Built by the Italian Space Agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, the infrared imager was able to capture 125-mile-wide (202-kilometer-wide) Loki Patera, the largest volcanic depression on Io. At less than 6 miles (10 kilometers) per pixel, the JIRAM data reveals what could be an active volcano. The team hopes for another look with the next flyby.

“The data show the lava could be bubbling to the surface in the northwest portion and creating a lava lake to the south and east,” said Alessandro Mura, co-investigator from the National Institute for Astrophysics in Rome. “Any volcanologist will tell you it is important to determine whether a lava lake has a stable source of material from an underground chamber. These data, and those we collect on upcoming flybys, will be crucial to understanding the kind of volcanism that is occurring at Io.”
Young Scientists Engage Jupiter

On July 17, Bolton and other members of the mission met with 49 students and early career scientists from all over Europe at the University of Rome to attend a weeklong workshop on Juno’s cutting-edge data on Jupiter and its moons.

“The contributions of the European scientific and engineering communities have been so fundamental for the success of our mission,” said Bolton. “This is just a small way of giving back to the community that means so much to us. During the workshop, students and early career researchers got to work with members of the Juno science team to develop some exciting scientific projects based on our data. Based on what I saw and the enthusiasm of these young people, the future of planetary exploration is bright here in Europe.”
« Last Edit: 07/27/2023 09:07 am by Targeteer »
Best quote heard during an inspection, "I was unaware that I was the only one who was aware."

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #730 on: 07/31/2023 04:29 am »
https://twitter.com/nasasolarsystem/status/1685855354348072960

Quote
Happening now: the #JunoMission spacecraft is approaching Jupiter's volcanic moon Io. Follow along using this real-time simulation based on actual NASA data -

https://eyes.nasa.gov/apps/solar-system

Offline Blackstar

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #731 on: 08/05/2023 02:33 am »
« Last Edit: 08/05/2023 02:34 am by Blackstar »

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #732 on: 09/13/2023 04:49 am »
https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/news/a-portrait-of-planet-and-moon-nasa-s-juno-mission-captures

Quote
A PORTRAIT OF PLANET AND MOON: NASA’S JUNO MISSION CAPTURES JUPITER AND IO TOGETHER

Image credit: Image data: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS and Image processing by Alain Mirón Velázquez © CC BY

Just hours before NASA’s Juno mission completed its 53rd close flyby of Jupiter on July 31, 2023, the spacecraft sped past the planet’s volcanic moon Io and captured this dramatic view of both bodies in the same frame.

The surface of Io, the most volcanically active world in the solar system, is marked by hundreds of volcanoes that regularly erupt with molten lava and sulfurous gases. Juno has provided scientists with the closest looks at Io since 2007, and the spacecraft will gather additional images and data from its suite of scientific instruments during even closer passes in late 2023 and early 2024.

To create this image, citizen scientist Alain Mirón Velázquez processed a raw image from the JunoCam instrument, enhancing the contrast, color, and sharpness. At the time the raw image was taken on July 30, 2023, Juno was about 32,170 miles (about 51,770 kilometers) from Io, and about 245,000 miles (about 395,000 kilometers) above Jupiter’s cloud tops.

JunoCam's raw images are available for the public to peruse and process into image products at https://missionjuno.swri.edu/junocam/processing. More information about NASA citizen science can be found at https://science.nasa.gov/citizenscience and https://www.nasa.gov/solve/opportunities/citizenscience.

More information about Juno is at https://www.nasa.gov/juno and https://missionjuno.swri.edu. For more about this finding and other science results, see https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/science-findings.

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #733 on: 10/30/2023 08:53 pm »
https://twitter.com/nasasolarsystem/status/1719104971139154431

Quote
A big discovery on the solar system’s biggest moon! Data collected by our #JunoMission indicates a briny past may be bubbling to the surface on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.

https://www.nasa.gov/missions/juno/salts-and-organics-observed-on-ganymedes-surface-by-nasas-juno/

Quote
Salts and Organics Observed on Ganymede’s Surface by NASA’s Juno

Jet Propulsion Laboratory
OCT 30, 2023
ARTICLE

CONTENTS
Exploring Other Jovian Worlds
More About the Mission
News Media Contacts

Data collected by NASA’s Juno mission indicates a briny past may be bubbling to the surface on Jupiter’s largest moon.

NASA’s Juno mission has observed mineral salts and organic compounds on the surface of Jupiter’s moon Ganymede. Data for this discovery was collected by the Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) spectrometer aboard the spacecraft during a close flyby of the icy moon. The findings, which could help scientists better understand the origin of Ganymede and the composition of its deep ocean, were published on Oct. 30 in the journal Nature Astronomy.

Larger than the planet Mercury, Ganymede is the biggest of Jupiter’s moons and has long been of great interest to scientists due to the vast internal ocean of water hidden beneath its icy crust. Previous spectroscopic observations by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft and Hubble Space Telescope as well as the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope hinted at the presence of salts and organics, but the spatial resolution of those observations was too low to make a determination.

On June 7, 2021, Juno flew over Ganymede at a minimum altitude of 650 miles (1,046 kilometers). Shortly after the time of closest approach, the JIRAM instrument acquired infrared images and infrared spectra (essentially the chemical fingerprints of materials, based on how they reflect light) of the moon’s surface. Built by the Italian Space Agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, JIRAM was designed to capture the infrared light (invisible to the naked eye) that emerges from deep inside Jupiter, probing the weather layer down to 30 to 45 miles (50 to 70 kilometers) below the gas giant’s cloud tops. But the instrument has also been used to offer insights into the terrain of moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto (known collectively as the Galilean moons for their discoverer, Galileo).

The JIRAM data of Ganymede obtained during the flyby achieved an unprecedented spatial resolution for infrared spectroscopy – better than 0.62 miles (1 kilometer) per pixel. With it, Juno scientists were able to detect and analyze the unique spectral features of non-water-ice materials, including hydrated sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and possibly aliphatic aldehydes.

“The presence of ammoniated salts suggests that Ganymede may have accumulated materials cold enough to condense ammonia during its formation,” said Federico Tosi, a Juno co-investigator from Italy’s National Institute for Astrophysics in Rome and lead author of the paper. “The carbonate salts could be remnants of carbon dioxide-rich ices.”

Exploring Other Jovian Worlds

Previous modeling of Ganymede’s magnetic field determined the moon’s equatorial region, up to a latitude of about 40 degrees, is shielded from the energetic electron and heavy ion bombardment created by Jupiter’s hellish magnetic field. The presence of such particle fluxes is well known to negatively impact salts and organics.

During the June 2021 flyby, JIRAM covered a narrow range of latitudes (10 degrees north to 30 degrees north) and a broader range of longitudes (minus 35 degrees east to 40 degrees east) in the Jupiter-facing hemisphere.

“We found the greatest abundance of salts and organics in the dark and bright terrains at latitudes protected by the magnetic field,” said Scott Bolton, Juno’s principal investigator from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “This suggests we are seeing the remnants of a deep ocean brine that reached the surface of this frozen world.”

Ganymede is not the only Jovian world Juno has flown by. The moon Europa, thought to harbor an ocean under its icy crust, also came under Juno’s gaze, first in October 2021 and then in September 2022. Now Io is receiving the flyby treatment. The next close approach to that volcano-festooned world is scheduled for Dec. 30, when the spacecraft will come within 932 miles (1,500 kilometers) of Io’s surface.

More About the Mission

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA’s New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) funded the Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built and operates the spacecraft.

More information about Juno is available at:

https://www.nasa.gov/juno

Image captions:

Quote
This enhanced image of the Jovian moon Ganymede was obtained by the JunoCam imager aboard NASA’s Juno spacecraft during the mission’s June 7, 2021, flyby of the icy moon. Data from that pass has been used to detect the presence of salts and organics on Ganymede.

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This look at the complex surface of Jupiter’s moon Ganymede came from NASA’s Juno mission during a close pass in June 2021.

Quote
Processed data from the Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) spectrometer aboard NASA’s Juno mission is superimposed on a mosaic of optical images from the agency’ s Galileo and Voyager spacecraft that show grooved terrain on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.
NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/ASI/INAF/JIRAM/Brown University

Offline vjkane

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #734 on: 10/30/2023 10:58 pm »
https://twitter.com/nasasolarsystem/status/1719104971139154431

Quote
A big discovery on the solar system’s biggest moon! Data collected by our #JunoMission indicates a briny past may be bubbling to the surface on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.


Very cool.

I seem to remember from another source that the JIRAM instrument wasn't able to collect similar data from the Europa encounter. Anyone know more?

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #735 on: 11/11/2023 08:43 am »
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-juno-finds-jupiters-winds-penetrate-in-cylindrical-layers

NASA’s Juno Finds Jupiter’s Winds Penetrate in Cylindrical Layers
Nov. 9, 2023

NASA’s Juno captured this view of Jupiter during the mission’s 54th close flyby of the giant planet on Sept. 7. The image was made with raw data from the JunoCam instrument that was processed to enhance details in cloud features and colors.
Credit: Image data: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS Image processing by Tanya Oleksuik CC BY NC SA 3.0

The finding offers deeper insights into the long-debated internal structure of the gas giant.

Gravity data collected by NASA’s Juno mission indicates Jupiter’s atmospheric winds penetrate the planet in a cylindrical manner, parallel to its spin axis. A paper on the findings was recently published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

The violent nature of Jupiter’s roiling atmosphere has long been a source of fascination for astronomers and planetary scientists, and Juno has had a ringside seat to the goings-on since it entered orbit in 2016. During each of the spacecraft’s 55 to date, a suite of science instruments has peered below Jupiter’s turbulent cloud deck to uncover how the gas giant works from the inside out.

One way the Juno mission learns about the planet’s interior is via radio science. Using NASA’s Deep Space Network antennas, scientists track the spacecraft’s radio signal as Juno flies past Jupiter at speeds near 130,000 mph (209,000 kph), measuring tiny changes in its velocity – as small as 0.01 millimeter per second. Those changes are caused by variations in the planet’s gravity field, and by measuring them, the mission can essentially see into Jupiter’s atmosphere.

Such measurements have led to numerous discoveries, including the existence of a dilute core deep within Jupiter and the depth of the planet’s zones and belts, which extend from the cloud tops down approximately 1,860 miles (3,000 kilometers).
Doing the Math

To determine the location and cylindrical nature of the winds, the study’s authors applied a mathematical technique that models gravitational variations and surface elevations of rocky planets like Earth. At Jupiter, the technique can be used to accurately map winds at depth. Using the high-precision Juno data, the authors were able to generate a four-fold increase in the resolution over previous models created with data from NASA’s trailblazing Jovian explorers Voyager and Galileo.
This illustration depicts findings that Jupiter’s atmospheric winds penetrate the planet

This illustration depicts findings that Jupiter’s atmospheric winds penetrate the planet in a cylindrical manner and parallel to its spin axis. The most dominant jet recorded by NASA’s Juno is shown in the cutout: The jet is at 21 degrees north latitude at cloud level, but 1,800 miles (3,000 kilometers) below that, it’s at 13 degrees north latitude.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI/SWRI/MSSS/ASI/ INAF/JIRAM/Björn Jónsson CC BY 3.0

“We applied a constraining technique developed for sparse data sets on terrestrial planets to process the Juno data,” said Ryan Park, a Juno scientist and lead of the mission’s gravity science investigation from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “This is the first time such a technique has been applied to an outer planet.”

The measurements of the gravity field matched a two-decade-old model that determined Jupiter’s powerful east-west zonal flows extend from the cloud-level white and red zones and belts inward. But the measurements also revealed that rather than extending in every direction like a radiating sphere, the zonal flows go inward, cylindrically, and are oriented along the direction of Jupiter’s rotation axis. How Jupiter’s deep atmospheric winds are structured has been in debated since the 1970s, and the Juno mission has now settled the debate.

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“All 40 gravity coefficients measured by Juno matched our previous calculations of what we expect the gravity field to be if the winds penetrate inward on cylinders,” said Yohai Kaspi of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, the study’s lead author and a Juno co-investigator. “When we realized all 40 numbers exactly match our calculations, it felt like winning the lottery.”

Along with bettering the current understanding of Jupiter’s internal structure and origin, the new gravity model application could be used to gain more insight into other planetary atmospheres.

Find out where Juno is right now with NASA’s interactive Eyes on the Solar System. With its blades stretching out some 66 feet (20 meters), the spacecraft is a dynamic engineering marvel, spinning to keep itself stable as it orbits Jupiter and flies by some of the planet’s moons. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Juno is currently in an extended mission. Along with flybys of Jupiter, the solar-powered spacecraft has completed a series of flybys of the planet’s icy moons Ganymede and Europa and is in the midst of several close flybys of Io. The Dec. 30 flyby of Io will be the closest to date, coming within about 930 miles (1,500 kilometers) of its volcano-festooned surface.

“As Juno’s journey progresses, we’re achieving scientific outcomes that truly define a new Jupiter and that likely are relevant for all giant planets, both within our solar system and beyond,” said Scott Bolton, the principal investigator of the Juno mission at the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “The resolution of the newly determined gravity field is remarkably similar to the accuracy we estimated 20 years ago. It is great to see such agreement between our prediction and our results.”
More About the Mission

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott J. Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA’s New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built and operates the spacecraft.

More information about Juno is available at:

https://www.nasa.gov/juno
Best quote heard during an inspection, "I was unaware that I was the only one who was aware."

Offline Blackstar

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #736 on: 12/25/2023 09:14 pm »
Apparently another couple of Io flybys are coming up later this week. Should be really close.

This guy is apparently connected to the imaging team and has created a simulated image of what the flyby will show. It is only a swath of the full disk, not the complete moon:

https://twitter.com/volcanopele/status/1739282183419056536

« Last Edit: 12/25/2023 09:18 pm by Blackstar »

Offline vjkane

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #737 on: 12/25/2023 10:49 pm »
Apparently another couple of Io flybys are coming up later this week. Should be really close.

This guy is apparently connected to the imaging team and has created a simulated image of what the flyby will show. It is only a swath of the full disk, not the complete moon:

https://twitter.com/volcanopele/status/1739282183419056536
Jason is a regular poster on unmannedspaceflight.com  I'm not sure what his professional gig is now, but he trained as a planetary scientist and was a member of at least the Cassini team.

For those interested in the more technical and scientific aspects of planetary exploration, this is a great forum. Very knowledgeable posters, including a member of the Juno imaging team (who carefully respects what is public knowledge and isn't).

Here's a link to more of Jason's work.  http://www.unmannedspaceflight.com/index.php?showtopic=8785&view=findpost&p=262384

This forum is strongly moderated. If you are interested in participating, please read the board rules http://www.unmannedspaceflight.com/index.php?act=boardrules    They are enforced.

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #738 on: 12/27/2023 06:42 pm »
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-juno-to-get-close-look-at-jupiters-volcanic-moon-io-on-dec-30

Quote
NASA’s Juno to Get Close Look at Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon Io on Dec. 30
Dec. 27, 2023

The orbiter has performed 56 flybys of Jupiter and documented close encounters with three of the gas giant’s four largest moons.

NASA’s Juno spacecraft will on Tuesday, Dec. 30, make the closest flyby of Jupiter’s moon Io that any spacecraft has made in over 20 years. Coming within roughly 930 miles (1,500 kilometers) from the surface of the most volcanic world in our solar system, the pass is expected to allow Juno instruments to generate a firehose of data.

“By combining data from this flyby with our previous observations, the Juno science team is studying how Io’s volcanoes vary,” said Juno’s principal investigator, Scott Bolton of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. “We are looking for how often they erupt, how bright and hot they are, how the shape of the lava flow changes, and how Io’s activity is connected to the flow of charged particles in Jupiter’s magnetosphere.”

A second ultra-close flyby of Io is scheduled for Feb. 3, 2024, in which Juno will again come within about 930 miles (1,500 kilometers) of the surface.

The spacecraft has been monitoring Io’s volcanic activity from distances ranging from about 6,830 miles (11,000 kilometers) to over 62,100 miles (100,000 kilometers), and has provided the first views of the moon’s north and south poles. The spacecraft has also performed close flybys of Jupiter’s icy moons Ganymede and Europa.

“With our pair of close flybys in December and February, Juno will investigate the source of Io’s massive volcanic activity, whether a magma ocean exists underneath its crust, and the importance of tidal forces from Jupiter, which are relentlessly squeezing this tortured moon,” said Bolton.

Now in the third year of its extended mission to investigate the origin of Jupiter, the solar-powered spacecraft will also explore the ring system where some of the gas giant’s inner moons reside.

Picture This

All three cameras aboard Juno will be active during the Io flyby. The Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM), which takes images in infrared, will be collecting the heat signatures emitted by volcanoes and calderas covering the moon’s surface. The mission’s Stellar Reference Unit (a navigational star camera that has also provided valuable science) will obtain the highest-resolution image of the surface to date. And the JunoCam imager will take visible-light color images.

JunoCam was included on the spacecraft for the public’s engagement and was designed to operate for up to eight flybys of Jupiter. The upcoming flyby of Io will be Juno’s 57th orbit around Jupiter, where the spacecraft and cameras have endured one of the solar system’s most punishing radiation environments.

“The cumulative effects of all that radiation has begun to show on JunoCam over the last few orbits,” said Ed Hirst, project manager of Juno at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “Pictures from the last flyby show a reduction in the imager’s dynamic range and the appearance of ‘striping’ noise. Our engineering team has been working on solutions to alleviate the radiation damage and to keep the imager going.”

More Io, Please

After several months of study and assessment, the Juno team adjusted the spacecraft’s planned future trajectory to add seven new distant Io flybys (for a total of 18) to the extended mission plan. After the close Io pass on Feb. 3, the spacecraft will fly by Io every other orbit, with each orbit growing progressively more distant: The first will be at an altitude of about 10,250 miles (16,500 kilometers) above Io, and the last will be at about 71,450 miles (115,000 kilometers).

The gravitational pull of Io on Juno during the Dec. 30 flyby will reduce the spacecraft’s orbit around Jupiter from 38 days to 35 days. Juno’s orbit will drop to 33 days after the Feb. 3 flyby.

After that, Juno’s new trajectory will result in Jupiter blocking the Sun from the spacecraft for about five minutes at the time when the orbiter is at its closest to the planet, a period called perijove. Although this will be the first time the solar-powered spacecraft has encountered darkness since its flyby of Earth in October 2013, the duration will be too short to affect its overall operation. With the exception of the Feb. 3 perijove, the spacecraft will encounter solar eclipses like this during every close flyby of Jupiter from now on through the remainder of its extended mission, which ends in late 2025.

Starting in April 2024, the spacecraft will carry out a series of occultation experiments that use Juno’s Gravity Science experiment to probe Jupiter’s upper atmospheric makeup, which provides key information on the planet’s shape and interior structure.

More About the Mission

JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott J. Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA’s New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built and operates the spacecraft.

More information about Juno is available at:

https://www.nasa.gov/juno

Image captions:

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This image revealing the north polar region of the Jovian moon Io was taken on October 15 by NASA’s Juno. Three of the mountain peaks visible in the upper part of image, near the day-night dividing line, were observed here for the first time by the spacecraft’s JunoCam. Credit: Image data: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS, Image processing by Ted Stryk

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This JunoCam image of Jupiter’s moon Io captures a plume of material ejected from the (unseen) volcano Prometheus. Indicated by the red arrow, the plume is just visible in the darkness below the terminator (the line dividing day and night). The image was taken by NASA’s Juno spacecraft on October 15. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

Offline vjkane

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Re: NASA - Juno - Updates
« Reply #739 on: 12/28/2023 04:27 am »
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NASA’s Juno to Get Close Look at Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon Io on Dec. 30
Dec. 27, 2023
NASA’s Juno spacecraft will on Tuesday, Dec. 30, make the closest flyby of Jupiter’s moon Io that any spacecraft has made in over 20 years. Coming within roughly 930 miles (1,500 kilometers) from the surface of the most volcanic world in our solar system, the pass is expected to allow Juno instruments to generate a firehose of data.

https://www.nasa.gov/juno

I believe the actual day is this coming Saturday, Dec. 30 and not a Tuesday. But it's the holiday weeks and who can keep days of the week straight? I thought today was Thursday all day.  :)

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