Author Topic: Earth from space: image of the week  (Read 244209 times)

Offline RoadWithoutEnd

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #500 on: 09/22/2021 09:21 am »
I will never not be sad about how many images from space are not representative of the human eye.

Almost none of these are what a person would see out a window in space.

Until that view is mundane, we should stop pretending that anything else is a valid substitute.
Walk the road without end, and all tomorrows unfold like music.

Offline eeergo

Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #501 on: 09/22/2021 09:31 am »
I will never not be sad about how many images from space are not representative of the human eye.

Almost none of these are what a person would see out a window in space.

Until that view is mundane, we should stop pretending that anything else is a valid substitute.

Actually, many published ones are quite faithful to visible light scenes. Check the many handheld camera pictures from ISS astronauts on Twitter (most of them are linked in the ISS Expedition threads) and you can see they don't differ much from some in this thread.

On the other hand, for the enhanced/false color ones: instead of suffering from missing the "true" human eye perspective, marvel at the fact that we're nowadays easily able to extend our very limited biological EM field perception into much broader (and sensitive) reaches and we're able to garner both information, understanding and even artistic sense, out of those representations.
-DaviD-

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #502 on: 09/24/2021 08:30 am »
Calabria, Italy
24/09/2021

Calabria, often referred to as the ‘boot’ of Italy, is featured in this image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

Calabria is a region in southern Italy, famous for its irregular shape that stretches from north to south for around 250 km – separating the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west and the Ionian Sea to the east. The region covers an area of around 15 000 sq km (with over 740 km of coastline) of which agricultural land covers 49%.

Most of the region is mountainous or hilly with three mountain ranges present: Pollino (not visible), La Sila and Aspromonte.

La Sila is a vast mountainous plateau around 1200 m above sea level, stretching for nearly 2000 sq km along the central area of Calabria. The highest point is Botte Donato, which reaches around 1928 m. The Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. The highest peak is Montalto at 1955 m.

Calabria is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, visible in the bottom-left, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only around 3.2 km.

Almost 2 million people reside in Calabria, with Reggio Calabria being the most populous city in the region (with an estimated population of around 200 000 people). The city lies on the ‘toe’ of the Italian Peninsula, on the slopes of the Aspromonte mountain range.

Calabria is known for its tourism, with its main attractions being the rugged cliffs and sandy beaches. Some of these main destinations include Tropea, Scilla, Lamezia Terme and Praia a Mare.

As well as providing detailed information about Earth’s vegetation, the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission is designed to play a key role in mapping differences in land cover to understand the landscape, map how it is used and monitor changes over time.

Offline eeergo

Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #503 on: 10/06/2021 10:42 am »
Some updates from Planet of the current volcanic eruption in the La Palma island, once its flow has reached the sea:

https://twitter.com/planet/status/1445510755277697035
-DaviD-

Offline abba888

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #504 on: 10/06/2021 11:24 am »
beautiful shot, and nice resolution
« Last Edit: 10/06/2021 12:17 pm by abba888 »

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #505 on: 10/15/2021 08:19 am »
New Delhi, the capital and second-largest city of India, is featured in this image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

New Delhi is situated in the north-central part of the country and lies within the massive metropolitan area of Delhi, India’s capital territory. To the east, Delhi is bounded by the state of Uttar Pradesh, and to the north, west and south it is bounded by the state of Haryana.

Delhi’s urban area consists of the historical city of Old Delhi in the north, New Delhi in the south and now also includes the nearby cities of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurugram and Noida. From space, these cityscapes together appear light grey in tone.

New Delhi sits, primarily, on the west bank of the Yamuna River, visible in black in the right of the image. One of the country’s most sacred rivers, the Yamuna is a tributary of the Ganges River, located around 160 km south of the Himalayas.

New Delhi, the government, commercial and financial centre of India, is considered one of the fastest growing cities in the country and in the world. The straight and diagonal pattern of the broad, tree-lined avenues in New Delhi, which features extensive green spaces, makes it appear as a darker-toned region and contrasts with the narrower, winding streets of Old Delhi.

The city is dotted with numerous museums, monuments, botanical gardens, places of worship and cultural buildings including the Hindu Akshardham Temple.

Other notable features in the image include Indira Gandhi International Airport visible in the left, and Hindon Airport to the right. Some perfectly squared plots of land can be seen in the image, particularly in the west side of the city.

As well as providing detailed information about Earth’s vegetation, Copernicus Sentinel-2 is designed to play a key role in mapping differences in land cover to understand the landscape, map how it is used and monitor changes over time. As cities continue to expand, Sentinel-2 can also be used to track urban expansion and assist urban planners.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #506 on: 12/03/2021 10:01 am »
White Nile, Sudan
03/12/2021

A part of the White Nile state in Sudan is featured in this false-colour image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

White Nile is one of the 18 states of Sudan. Covering an area of around 40 000 sq km, the state is divided into four districts: Ad Douiem, Al Gutaina, Kosti and Al Jabalian. The area pictured here is located just north of Kosti, also spelled Kūstī, which lies on the west bank of the White Nile River (not visible).

This false-colour image, captured on 25 August 2021, was processed in a way that also includes information from the near-infrared channel and shows vegetation in tones of red. This band combination is routinely used to monitor vegetation health. Although the area lies within an arid climatic region, low vegetation covering the valley floors between the sand dunes can be seen in bright shades of red.

Many agricultural plots can also be seen in red, particularly in the far-right and far-bottom of the image. Agriculture plays an important role in Sudan’s economy. The country’s main crops include cotton, peanuts, sesame and sugarcane, while the main subsistence crops include wheat, corn, sorghum and millet. Several small villages can also be spotted in the image, with many of them visible near artificial water reservoirs (easily spotted with their rectangular shape) and are most likely utilised during the dry season.

Owing to seasonal rainfall, many ephemeral bodies of water can be spotted in shades of turquoise and blue in the image.

Flooding is common in Sudan in August and September. During these months each year, monsoon rains pour into the Ethiopian Highlands and flow down to the Blue and White Nile and can often lead to floodwaters swamping nearby communities. Starting in August 2021, a series of torrential downpours overwhelmed streams and rivers and unleashed floods in the area, with the White Nile being one of the hardest hit areas.

Copernicus Sentinel-2  has two satellites, each carrying a high-resolution camera that images Earth’s surface in 13 spectral bands. The type of band combination from Copernicus Sentinel-2 used to process this image is commonly utilised to assess plant density and health, as plants reflect near-infrared and green light, while absorbing red. Since they reflect more near-infrared than green, dense, plant-covered land appears in bright red.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #507 on: 12/10/2021 12:09 pm »
Fairbanks, Alaska
10/12/2021

The city of Fairbanks, the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska, and its surroundings, are featured in this Copernicus Sentinel-2 image.

Visible in the top-left corner of the image, Fairbanks is located in the central Tanana Valley, straddling the Chena River near its confluence with the Tanana River – a 940 km tributary of the Yukon River. Dominating this week’s image, the Tanana River’s name is an Athabascan word meaning ‘river trail’. Many low streams and rivers flow into the Tanana River.

The river flows in a northwest direction along the base of the Alaska Range (visible in the bottom of the image) before joining the Yukon River near the village of Tanana. The river drains the north slopes of the high Alaska Range and is fed by several glaciers. The sediment-laden Tanana is rich in minerals, which gives it its milky colour.

South of the Tanana River lies the Tanana Flats, an area of marsh and bog that stretches for more than 160 km until it rises into the Alaska Range. One of the components of the Alaskan mountains, the Alaska Range extends for around 650 km in a generally east-west arc from the Aleutian Range to the boundary of Yukon. The mountain range can sometimes be seen from Fairbanks on clear days. The highest mountain in North America, the Denali, lies in the Alaska Range and reaches an elevation of over 6000 m (not visible).

Around 20 km from Fairbanks lies the city of North Pole. Despite its name, the city is around 2700 km south of Earth’s geographic North Pole and around 200 km south of the Arctic Circle.

Light green colours in the image indicate deciduous forest, while dark green represents evergreen forests.

Sentinel-2 is a two-satellite mission to supply the coverage and data delivery needed for Europe’s Copernicus programme. The mission’s frequent revisits over the same area and high spatial resolution allow changes in both land and water bodies to be closely monitored.


Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #508 on: 12/17/2021 08:38 am »
Kourou, French Guiana
17/12/2021

Ahead of the upcoming Ariane 5 launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over Kourou – home to Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana, an overseas department of France.

Located around 60 km northwest of the French Guianese capital Cayenne, Kourou is a coastal town in the north-central part of the country and is visible in the lower right of the image. The town lies at the estuary of the Kourou River which, after its journey of 144 km, empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Its muddy waters appear brown most likely due to sediments picked up from the surrounding forest.

Long, white sandy beaches line the town’s ocean coast, while the riverbank and inland area consists mostly of mangrove and dense tropical rainforest. The surrounding area’s economy is largely agricultural, with coffee, cacao and tropical fruits being grown.

Just northwest of Kourou lies Europe’s Spaceport – chosen as a base from which to launch satellites in 1964 by the French Government, and currently home to ESA-developed rocket families Ariane and Vega.

As Kourou lies just 500 km north of the equator, it makes it ideally placed for launches into orbit as the rockets gain extra performance thanks to a ‘slingshot effect’ from the speed of Earth’s rotation. In addition, there is no risk of cyclones or earthquakes. This launch base and the jungle that surrounds it covers 690 sq km and protects an abundance of wildlife and plants.

From here, the largest and most powerful telescope ever launched into space – the James Webb Space Telescope – is scheduled for launch. After liftoff, it will embark on a month-long journey to its destination, around one and a half million kilometres from Earth.

Following the footsteps of the Hubble Space Telescope, Webb is designed to answer questions about the Universe and to make breakthrough discoveries in all fields of astronomy. The telescope will be able to detect infrared light generated by galaxies as they formed more than 13.5 billion years ago, in the aftermath of the Big Bang. Webb will see farther into our origins – from the Universe's first galaxies, to the birth of stars and planets, to exoplanets.

In the first month after launch, Webb will unfold its sunshield, which is around the size of a tennis court, and deploy its 6.5-metre primary mirror. This will be used to detect the faint light of distant stars and galaxies with a sensitivity of a hundred times greater than that of Hubble.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #509 on: 01/28/2022 08:20 am »
Lesotho
28/01/2022

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over northwest Lesotho – a small, land-locked country surrounded entirely by South Africa.

Known for its tall mountains and narrow valleys, Lesotho is the only nation in the world that lies completely above 1000 m in elevation. Lesotho has an area of just 30 000 sq km, around the same size as Belgium, and has a population of around two million.

Around 80% of the country’s population lives in rural areas and more than three quarters of these people are engaged in agriculture – mostly traditional, rainfed cereal production and extensive animal grazing. The country’s agricultural system faces a growing number of issues, including a small portion of the land deemed arable, as well as other climate-related vulnerabilities such as drought, floods and extreme temperatures occurring more frequently.

This composite image was created by combining three separate images from the near-infrared channel from the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission over a period of nine months.

The first image, captured on 27 November 2020, is assigned to the red channel and represents the onset of the wet summer season; the second from 12 March 2021, represents green, and was captured towards the end of the wet season; and the third from 19 August 2021 covers the blue part of the spectrum, captured during the short, dry season.

All other colours visible in the image are different mixtures of red, green and blue, and vary according to the stage of vegetation growth. A distinct pattern emerges due to topographical differences in this mountainous landscape, such as altitude and slope, which influence local water availability.

Maseru, the capital and largest urban centre of Lesotho, lies directly on the Lesotho— South Africa border. The city is located on the left bank of the Caledon River, also known as the Mohokare River, visible in black.

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission is designed to provide images that can be used to distinguish between different crop types as well as data on numerous plant indices, such as leaf area, leaf chlorophyll and leaf water. The mission’s revisit time of just five days, along with the mission’s range of spectral bands, mean that changes in plant health and growth can be more easily monitored.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #510 on: 02/04/2022 09:24 am »
Batura Glacier, Pakistan

04/02/2022

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over Batura Glacier – one of the largest and longest glaciers in the world, outside of the polar regions.

Located in the upper Hunza Valley, in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, the Batura Glacier is visible in the centre of the image and is approximately 57 km long. It flows from west to east and feeds the Hunza River in north Pakistan, then joins the Gilgit and Naltar Rivers before it flows into the Indus River.

The lower portions of the Batura Glacier feature a grey sea of rocks and gravelly moraine (an accumulation of rocks and sediment carried down by the glacier often caused by avalanches). The glacier has a mean ice thickness of around 150 m, with the lower parts of the glacier holding most of its mass.

This false-colour composite image uses the near-infrared channel of the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission to highlight vegetation, which appears in red. Batura is bordered by several villages and pastures with herds of sheep, goats and cows where roses and juniper trees are quite common. In the upper-right of the image, pockets of cultivated vegetation alongside the Gilgit and Hunza rivers can be spotted.

Batura Glacier is located just north of the Batura Muztagh, a sub-range of the Karakoram mountain range, which includes the massifs of the Batura Sar, the 25th highest mountain on Earth standing at 7795 m, and Passu Sar at 7478 m.

Glacier shrinkage is a prominent sign of ongoing climate change. However, unlike many glaciers around the world, the glaciers residing in the mountain ranges in Karakoram are not responding to global warming. Their retreating is less than the global average, and in some cases, are either stable or growing. This anomalous behaviour of the region’s glaciers has been coined the ‘Karakoram Anomaly’.

Scientists typically measure the motions of glaciers with ground-based measurements. Because of the rugged terrain and challenges involved in field studies, long-term ground observational data on Karakoram is sparse. Satellites can help monitor changes in glacier mass, extents, trace area and length of glacier changes through time and derive surface velocity. Learn more about how Copernicus Sentinel-2 can help enhance glacier monitoring.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #511 on: 02/11/2022 12:04 pm »
Hereford, Texas
11/02/2022

Hereford, and its surrounding colourful patchwork of agricultural fields, is featured in this Copernicus Sentinel-2 image.

Hereford, which is the county seat of Deaf Smith County in Texas, is widely known for its agriculture industry. Known as the beef capital of the world owing to its large number of cattle fed, Hereford can be spotted in the centre-bottom of the image. The area is known for its semiarid climate, with heavy farming and ranching sustained by irrigation from the Ogallala Aquifer – a massive underground reservoir spanning eight landlocked states.

A variety of crops are grown in the area including corn, wheat, maize, soybeans and onions. Circular shapes in the image are an example of centre-pivot irrigation systems, where equipment rotates around a central pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers. This type of irrigation helps farmers manage their watering demands as well as help conserve their precious water sources.

This composite image over the High Plains in Texas was created by combining three separate Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images from the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission spanning from 17 March to 21 April 2019.

Shades of red, yellow and green depict changes in vegetation growth at the beginning of the season. Black patches of land indicate very low vegetation for the season, while white signifies a high level of vegetation during these dates. The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index is widely used in remote sensing as it gives scientists an accurate measure of health and status of plant growth.

The US Route 60 can be seen cutting across the bottom-right of the image. The motorway is a major east-west US route, which runs over 4200 km from southwest Arizona to the Atlantic Ocean coast in Virginia.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #512 on: 02/25/2022 09:51 am »
Washington, US
25/02/2022

To celebrate the recent data release from Landsat 9, this week we take a closer look at a part of Washington state – the northwesternmost state of the US – through the lens of Landsat 9.

Data from Landsat 9, which was launched in September 2021, is now publicly available for users and researchers across the world. The satellite will continue the programme’s critical role in monitoring, understanding and managing the land resources needed to sustain human life.

A partnership between NASA and the US Geological Survey, the satellite carries two science instruments, the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2). The OLI–2 captures observations of the Earth’s surface in visible, near-infrared, and shortwave-infrared bands, and TIRS-2 measures thermal infrared radiation, or heat, emitted from Earth’s surface.

This false-colour image, captured on 12 February 2022 by Landsat 9, has been processed using the satellite’s near-infrared channel. This channel is frequently used to highlight vegetation, which is particularly evident in the lower half of the image. Fields that are currently cultivated can be seen in bright red, while unvegetated areas appear in green and brown. Circular shapes, predominantly in the bottom-left, are centre-pivot irrigation fields – where equipment rotates around a central pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers. Washington is a leading agricultural state, with the top crops being apples, milk, potatoes and wheat.

Columbia River, the largest river in the Pacific Northwest, is visible in the top of the image in black. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows through Washington and Oregon, before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is one of the world’s greatest sources of hydroelectric power and, with its tributaries, represents a third of the potential hydropower of the United States.

As water absorbs a fair amount of radiation, water bodies, such as the Columbia River, appear black in the image. However certain icy water bodies dotted in the left of the image can be seen in turquoise as ice reflects less in the near-infrared channel than in the visible part of the spectrum.

The Landsat series is part of ESA’s Third-Party Missions programme which consists of almost 50 satellite missions, and also forms part of ESA’s Heritage Space programme.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #513 on: 03/04/2022 08:55 am »
Snowy Pyrenees
04/03/2022

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over the Pyrenees Mountains in southwest Europe. The mountain range forms a natural border between France and Spain with the small, landlocked country of Andorra sandwiched in between.

Stretching from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea on the east to the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) on the west, this international mountain range is 430 km long. The area pictured in this image, captured on 30 January 2022, spans around 120 km from the village of Escallare in the east to Panticosa to the west.

Located in the Spanish province of Huesca in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park lies Pico de Aneto, the highest mountain peak in the Pyrenees. It rises to an elevation of 3404 m and is also the third-highest mountain in Spain. Click on the circle in the image to take a closer look at Pico de Aneto.

Geological studies have revealed that the Pyrenees Mountains have been around for longer than the Alps, with their sediments first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. The entire mountain range formed due to the upwelling of large sedimentary rocks by the collision of the Iberian and the Eurasian plate around 100 to 150 million years ago, followed by intense erosion from ice and water.

Snow covers many of the peaks year-round, especially those in the centre-section of the chain. The western Pyrenees typically receive greater precipitation than the eastern Pyrenees owing to moisture blowing in from the Atlantic Ocean. The mountain range is also home to several small glaciers, as well as many mountain lakes and some of the highest waterfalls in Europe including Gavarnie Falls which, at 422 m, is France’s highest waterfall.

Few people live at the Pyrenees’ highest elevations; however, Andorra is nestled among peaks near the eastern end of the chain (not visible in the image). With an area of around 468 sq km, Andorra is the sixth smallest country in Europe.

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission is designed to play a key role in mapping differences in land cover to understand the landscape, map how it is used and monitor changes over time. As well as providing detailed information about Earth’s vegetation, it can also systematically map different classes of cover such as forest, grassland, water surfaces and artificial cover like roads and buildings.

Offline jacqmans

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #514 on: 04/01/2022 10:58 am »
Barranquilla, Colombia
01/04/2022

Barranquilla, the capital of the Atlántico department in northwest Colombia, is featured in this image taken by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

Barranquilla, visible in grey at the top of the image, covers an area of around 155 sq km and is the fourth-most populous city in Colombia after Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. The city of Barranquilla serves as a major trade centre for Colombia, housing the largest port along the Caribbean Sea. Thanks to this famous port, Barranquilla earned itself the nickname ‘Colombia's Golden Gate’ (or La Puerta de Oro de Colombia in Spanish).

The city lies strategically next to the delta of the Magdalena River, one of the main rivers in Colombia, flowing northwards for around 1500 km through the west half of the country before emptying into the Caribbean Sea.

Owing to large quantities of sediment, as seen by the extensive sediment plume at its mouth and the brownish colour of its waters, the Magdalena requires frequent dredging of its main channel to allow access to Barranquilla’s port for oceangoing vessels. This image, captured in March 2021, was taken just before the onset of the rainy season, which starts in April.

The urban area of Barranquilla, with airport runways visible south of the city, contrasts with the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta swampy marshes to the east visible in dark green. Selected as a Ramsar Site of International Importance, the site is important for its mangrove ecosystem, which is the largest on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. It also serves as habitat and winter breeding ground for several bird species.

Other notable features in the image include the El Guajaro Reservoir, around 50 km southwest of Barranquilla. The reservoir was created by the union of seven smaller swamps in the area to supply water for agricultural irrigation. In addition to sewage discharges, the reservoir receives agricultural runoff, particularly during the rainy season, which leads to states of eutrophication in the water that are accompanied by blooms of harmful microorganisms, otherwise known as cyanobacteria.

These types of algae, which are commonly present in freshwater and saline ecosystems, are most likely why the lake appears in emerald green in today’s image. Satellite data from the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission can track the growth and spread of harmful algae blooms in order to alert and mitigate against damaging impacts for tourism and fishing industries.

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #515 on: 04/15/2022 11:04 am »
Scandinavian Peninsula
15/04/2022

The Copernicus Sentinel-3 mission captured this impressive shot of the almost cloud-free Scandinavian Peninsula on 20 March 2022.

The Scandinavian Peninsula, which comprises Sweden and Norway, is approximately 1850 km long. It extends southward from the Barents Sea in the north, the Norwegian sea to the west and the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea to the east. Denmark, Finland, Latvia and Lithuania are also visible in this week’s image.

Along the left side of the peninsula, the jagged fjords lining Norway’s coast can be spotted from space. Many of these fjords were carved out by the thick glaciers that formed during the last ice age. The largest and deepest fjord on Norway’s coast, called Sognefjord, lies in southwest Norway and is 1308 m deep.

Sweden’s topography consists mainly of flat, rolling lowlands dotted with lakes. Lake Vänern and Lake Vättern, the largest lakes of Sweden, are clearly visible at the bottom of the peninsula. The lakes do not freeze completely during the winter months. To the northeast of the peninsula lies Finland with more than 55 000 lakes – most of which were also created by glacial deposits.

During March, much of northern Europe and Scandinavia had been affected by a strong high-pressure weather system, which also allowed for this almost cloud-free acquisition. On 19 March in Tirstrup, Denmark, the atmospheric pressure reached 1051.6 hPa, the highest value ever recorded in March.

Carrying a suite of cutting-edge instruments, Copernicus Sentinel-3 measures Earth’s oceans, land, ice and atmosphere to monitor and understand large-scale global dynamics. It provides essential information in near-real time for ocean and weather forecasting.

With a focus towards our oceans, Sentinel-3 measures the temperature, colour and height of the sea surface as well as the thickness of sea ice, while, over land, the mission maps the way land is used, provides indices of vegetation state and measures the height of rivers and lakes.

A technical note: the image is a mosaic of 2 descending orbits with a difference of around 60 minutes between them, hence the observable striping at the top of the image.

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #516 on: 04/22/2022 08:39 am »
Earth
22/04/2022

This spectacular image of Earth was captured by the Meteosat Second Generation series of missions on 23 March 2022.

Satellites provide essential information for everyday applications, improving agricultural practices, to help when disasters strike, and thanks to the Meteosat series, provide crucial data for weather forecasting.

Given that extreme weather and severe storms pose significant and increasing hazards to society, the Meteosat satellites provide detailed, full disc imagery over Europe and Africa every 15 minutes and rapid scan imagery over Europe every five minutes.

This imagery is crucial for nowcasting, which is about detecting rapidly high impact weather and predicting its evolution a few hours ahead, in support of the safety of life and property. These observations are also used for weather forecasting and climate monitoring.

The Meteosat missions have guaranteed the continuous flow of data for weather forecasting since 1977, and later this year, we will soon begin a new era in weather and climate monitoring with Meteosat Third Generation (MTG).

The third generation will not only guarantee the continuity of data for weather forecasting, but offer significant enhancement of the current imager capabilities, an all-new infrared sounding capability and real-time lightning imaging for early detection of severe storms as they develop.

For the overall MTG mission two types of satellite are being developed; the Imaging satellite (MTG-I) and the Sounding Satellite (MTG-S). MTG-I1 is currently at Thales Alenia Space’s facilities in Cannes, France, undergoing an extensive testing campaign to ensure that the satellite will survive the rigours of the launch and the hostile environment of space.

Offline jacqmans

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Offline Hog

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #518 on: 04/28/2022 04:23 pm »
https://twitter.com/CopernicusEU/status/1519210931250733056?t=KLmOkQ7xBVT1bOFaTKjO_g&s=19
Happy "Holland Day" Jacqmans! We Canadians have always been treated very kindly in your country.
Paul

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Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #519 on: 04/29/2022 01:00 pm »
Mount Aso, Japan
29/04/2022

Mount Aso, the largest active volcano in Japan, is featured in this image captured on 1 January 2022 by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

Located in the Kumamoto Prefecture on the nation’s southernmost major island of Kyushu, Mount Aso rises to an elevation of 1592 m. The Aso Caldera is one of the largest calderas in the world, measuring around 120 km in circumference, 25 km from north to south and 18 km from east to west.

The caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from approximately 90 000 to 270 000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows and volcanic ash that covered much of Kyushu region and even extended to the nearby Yamaguchi Prefecture.

The caldera is surrounded by five peaks known collectively as Aso Gogaku: Nekodake, Takadake, Nakadake, Eboshidake, Kishimadake. Nakadake is the only active volcano at the centre of Mount Aso and is the main attraction in the region. The volcano goes through cycles of activity. At its calmest, the crater fills with a lime green lake which gently steams, but as activity increases, the lake boils off and disappears. The volcano has been erupting sporadically for decades, most recently in 2021, which has led to the number of visitors drop in recent years.

Not far from the crater lies Kusasenri: a vast grassland inside the mega crater of Eboshidake. Active just over 20 000 years ago, the crater has been filled with volcanic pumice from other eruptions, with magma still brewing a few kilometres below. Rainwater often accumulates on the plain forming temporary lakes. The pastures are used for cattle raising, dairy farming and horse riding.

One of the nearest populated cities is Aso, visible around 8 km north from the volcano, and has a population of around 26 000 people.

There are 110 active volcanoes in Japan, of which 47 are monitored closely as they have erupted recently or shown worrying signs including seismic activity, ground deformation or emissions of large amounts of smoke.

Satellite data can be used to detect the slight signs of change that may foretell an eruption. Once an eruption begins, optical and radar instruments can capture the various phenomena associated with it, including lava flows, mudslides, ground fissures and earthquakes. Atmospheric sensors on satellites can also identify the gases and aerosols released by the eruption, as well as quantify their wider environmental impact.

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