Author Topic: Earth from space: image of the week  (Read 244224 times)

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #480 on: 04/23/2021 08:35 am »
Laizhou Bay, China
23/04/2021

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over the sediment-stained waters in Laizhou Bay, located on the southern shores of the Bohai Sea, on the east coast of mainland China.

The bay is the smallest of three main bays of the Bohai Sea, and is named after the city of Laizhou, visible to the east. Large quantities of sediment carried by the Yellow River, visible in the left of the image, discolour the waters of the bay and appear turquoise. This sediment can be seen throughout the waters in this image, even far from the coast.

The Yellow River is China’s second longest river, with a length of over 5400 km, and is surpassed only by the Yangtze River. The river rises in the Bayan Har Mountains in Western China and flows through nine provinces before emptying into the Laizhou Bay. Its drainage basin is the third largest in the country, with an area of around 750 000 sq km.

The river is estimated to carry 1.6 billion tonnes of silt annually, carrying the majority to the sea. Owing to this heavy load of silt, the Yellow River deposits soil in stretches, ultimately elevating the river bed. Excessive sediment deposits have raised the river bed several metres above the surrounding ground, sometimes causing damaging floods.

On the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, in the bottom of the image, flooded fields are visible and are most likely artificial fish farms. The city of Dongying, home to the second largest oilfield in China, is visible in the left of the image.

This image was processed in a way that included the near-infrared channel, which makes vegetation appear bright red. The lush vegetation can be distinguished from the brown fields in the image, which are unharvested or not yet fully grown.

Copernicus Sentinel-2 is a two-satellite mission. Each satellite carries a high-resolution camera that images Earth’s surface in 13 spectral bands. The mission is mostly used to track changes in the way land is being used and to monitor the health of vegetation.

This image, acquired on 26 February 2020

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #481 on: 04/30/2021 08:29 am »
Antofagasta, Chile
30/04/2021

Antofagasta, a port city in northern Chile, is featured in this image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

Located around 1000 km north of Santiago, Antofagasta is the capital of both the Antofagasta Province and Region. The Antofagasta province borders the El Loa and Tocopilla provinces to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

The city stretches approximately 22 km along the coast, snuggled between the ocean and the arid mountains to the east. The largest city in northern Chile, Antofagasta has a population of around 400 000 people. The city’s early growth resulted from the discovery of nitrate deposits in 1866, while today the economy is mainly based on the exploitation of various minerals such as copper and sulphur.

In the right of the image, large, emerald green geometric shapes are visible and are most likely evaporation ponds used in mining operations. These bright colours are in stark contrast with the surrounding desert landscape, which is largely devoid of vegetation, making them easily identifiable from space.

The city of Antofagasta is also a communications centre on the Pan-American Highway, visible as distinctive black lines in the right of the image, and is also linked by rail to the mines, as well as Bolivia and Argentina.

Antofagasta is located within the Atacama Desert which is considered one of the driest places on Earth, as there are some parts of the desert where rainfall has never been recorded. Antofagasta typically has a cold desert climate with abundant sunshine, with January being its warmest month.

This image, captured on 6 January 2021, shows little cloud cover over the city and surrounding area but strong westerly winds have created distinct wave patterns over the ocean – visible all the way from space.

This image was captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #482 on: 05/07/2021 10:59 am »
Morbihan, France
07/05/2021

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over Morbihan – a French department in the south of Brittany.

Brittany is an important cultural region in the northwest of France and is divided into four departments: Ille-et-Vilaine in the east, Côtes d'Armor in the north, Finistčre in the west and Morbihan in the south.

Morbihan takes its name from ‘Mor-Bihan’ which means ‘little sea’ in the Breton language. The Gulf of Morbihan, visible in the centre of the image, is one of the most famous features of the coastline with numerous islands and islets. The gulf is around 20 km long from east to west and around 15 km wide from north to south. It opens onto the Bay of Quiberon by a narrow passage between Locmariaquer and Port-Navalo.

Many ships and vessels can be seen in the bay. Several islands are visible in the image, including the small islands of Houat and Hśdic and the large Belle Île, which is visible in the bottom-left of the image. Belle Île is known for the sharp cliff edges visible on the southwest side, but also for its beaches and renowned opera festival.

The town and sea port of Lorient is visible in the top-left of the image. The town is situated on the right bank of the Scorff River at its confluence with the Blavet on the Bay of Biscay. The island of Groix lies a few kilometres off Lorient. The island has high cliffs on its north coast and sandy beaches in secluded coves on the south coast.

Morbihan is also known for its ‘Alignements de Carnac’ which consists of rows of around 3000 standing stones and megalithic tombs. The stones were said to be erected during the Neolithic period, around 4500 BC. Most of the stones are within the Breton village of Carnac, but some to the east are within La Trinité-sur-Mer.

Fields dominate the French countryside as seen in this image captured on 13 September 2020. Brittany is known for its rich and varied agriculture including meats and dairy products, but also provides a variety of high quality fruit and vegetables including tomatoes, strawberries, peas and green beans.

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission is designed to provide images that can be used to distinguish between different crop types as well as data on numerous plant indices, such as leaf area, leaf chlorophyll and leaf water – all essential to monitor plant growth accurately.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #483 on: 05/15/2021 09:12 am »
Qeshm Island, Iran
14/05/2021

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over Qeshm Island – the largest island in Iran.

Qeshm Island lies in the Strait of Hormuz, parallel to the Iranian coast from which it is separated by the Clarence Strait (Khuran). With an area of around 1200 sq km, the island has an irregular outline and shape often compared to that of an arrow. The island is approximately 135 km long and spans around 40 km at its widest point.

The image shows the largely arid land surfaces on both Qeshm Island and mainland Iran. The island generally has a rocky coastline except for the sandy bays and mud flats that fringe the northwest part of the island.

The Hara Forest Protected Area, a network of shallow waterways and forest, can be seen clearly in the image, between Qeshm Island and the mainland. Hara, which means ‘grey mangrove’ in the local language, is a large mangrove forest and protected area that brings more than 150 species of migrating birds during spring, including the great egret and the western reef heron. The forest also hosts sea turtles and aquatic snakes.

The dome-shaped Namakdan mountain is visible in the southwest part of the island and features the Namakdan Cave – one of the longest salt caves in the world. With a length of six kilometres, the cave is filled with salt sculptures, salt rivers and salt megadomes.

The water south of Qeshm Island appears particularly dark, while lighter, turquoise colours can be seen in the left of the image most likely due to shallow waters and sediment content. Several islands can be seen in the waters including Hengam Island, visible just south of Qeshm, Larak Island and Hormuz Island which is known for its red, edible soil.

Several cloud formations can be seen in the bottom-right of the image, as well as a part of the Musandam Peninsula, the northeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The peninsula’s jagged coastline features fjordlike inlets called ‘khors’ and its waters are home to dolphins and other marine life.

Data from the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission can help monitor changes in urban expansion, land-cover change and agriculture monitoring. The mission’s frequent revisits over the same area and high spatial resolution also allow changes in inland water bodies to be closely monitored.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #484 on: 05/21/2021 08:39 am »
Los Cabos, Mexico
21/05/2021

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over Los Cabos – a municipality on the southern tip of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula.

Meaning ‘the capes’ in Spanish, Los Cabos is a region composed of mountains and coastal plains and is largely dry and rocky with over 320 days of sunshine each year. The area encompasses the two cities of Cabo San Lucas (visible in the bottom-left) and San José del Cabo (visible to the right).

The area along the coast between the two cities, often referred to as the Los Cabos Resort Corridor or simply the Corridor, stretches around 30 km along the highway and features a plethora of beaches dotted primarily with hotels, resorts and golf courses.

The peninsula ends with the Arch of Cabo San Lucas, known locally as ‘El Arco’ or ‘Land’s End.’ This distinctive land formation, carved by winds and waves, is where the Pacific Ocean meets the Gulf of California, also known as the Sea of Cortez.

The Arch of Cabo San Lucas is adjacent to Lovers Beach (Playa del Amor) on the Sea of Cortez side and Divorce Beach (Playa del Divorcio) on the rougher Pacific Ocean side. The arch is a popular gathering area for sea lions and is frequented by tourists.

A region of mountains dominate the landscape including the Sierra de la Laguna Mountain Range and the Sierra de San Lázaro, which are both formed of volcanic rock with peaks between 400 and 1000 m.

The main river in the area is the San José River, visible in the right of the image, and flows north to south primarily during the summer rainy season. The river creates an estuary at its southern end, which is one of the largest in Mexico and is home to both native and migratory birds.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #485 on: 05/28/2021 09:58 am »
Great Lakes
28/05/2021

All five of North America’s Great Lakes are pictured in this spectacular image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-3 mission: Lake Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario.

The Great Lakes are a chain of deep freshwater lakes. With a combined area of around 244 000 sq km, the lakes represent the largest surface of freshwater in the world – covering an area exceeding that of the United Kingdom.

Around 100 000 years ago, a major ice sheet formed over most of Canada and part of the US. As it formed, giant glaciers flowed into the land carving out valleys and levelling mountains. As higher temperatures began to melt the ice sheet, meltwater filled the holes left by the glaciers.

Many of these holes today still contain water and formed the thousands of lakes across central USA and Canada. The biggest remnants of this process are the Great Lakes. The lakes drain roughly from west to east and empty into the Atlantic Ocean.

Lake Superior, the northernmost and westernmost lake, is the largest and deepest of the Great Lakes. It drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River at an average rate of 2000 cubic metres per second. Lake Michigan lies south of Lake Superior and connects with Lake Huron through the six km-wide channel Straits of Mackinac in the north. Lake Huron is the second largest of the Great Lakes and is bounded by Michigan, US, on the north and by Ontario, Canada, to the east.

Lake Erie is the shallowest and southernmost of the Great Lakes. Green algal blooms are visible on the lake. These toxic blooms have been a problem for the lake in recent years. Caused by heightened levels of phosphorus – found in fertilisers and common household products – finding its way into the water, these blooms have caused harm to the lake’s fish population.

Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and also the smallest in surface area. It is bounded on the north by Ontario, Canada and on the south by New York, US, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake.

In this image, captured on 15 March 2020, a large quantity of ice and snow coverage is visible north of the lakes, yet the amount of ice cover on the lakes is minimal – extremely unusual for the ice season which typically runs from 1 December through 30 April.

Parts of the Great Lakes typically freeze every winter. As Earth’s climate changes, rising air and water temperatures have led to less ice cover on many lakes in North America, including the Great Lakes. Ice cover on the Great Lakes can fluctuate dramatically from year to year, depending on several patterns of climate variability. Years with lower-than-normal ice cover appear to have become more frequent during the past two decades.

Sentinel-3 is a two-satellite mission to supply the coverage and data delivery needed for Europe’s Copernicus environmental monitoring programme. Each satellite’s instrument package includes an optical sensor to monitor changes in the colour of Earth’s surfaces. It can be used, for example, to monitor ocean biology and water quality.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #486 on: 06/18/2021 09:29 am »
Tana River, Kenya

The Tana River, Kenya’s longest river, is featured in this false-colour image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

The Tana River flows for around 1000 km from the Aberdare Mountains, west of Nyeri, running eastwards before veering south around the massif of Mount Kenya, and opening onto a wide valley, pictured here, where it meanders through a floodplain often subject to inundation. The river then continues its journey before entering the Indian Ocean at Formosa Bay, Kipini.

The river is known for its extraordinary biodiversity, as it provides water and life for wild animals, nomads and their livestock, as well as for agricultural purposes.

Some of the Tana’s tributaries as well as several smaller, seasonal rivers, known as lagas, that only flow during the rainy season, are visible flowing in an east-west direction in the image. The river beds support livestock and wildlife during the dry season owing to their ability to retain water.

This false-colour image, captured on 25 February 2020, was processed in a way that included the near-infrared channel. This type of band combination from Copernicus Sentinel-2 is most commonly used to assess plant density and health, as plants reflect near-infrared and green light, while absorbing red. Since they reflect more near-infrared than green, dense, plant-covered land appears in bright red.

It is easy to pick out the narrow band of riparian forest visible along the banks of the river in the image. The riparian forest usually thrives year-round, although its extent is highly dependent on seasonal flooding and ground water recharge by the Tana.

This image was captured during the area’s wet season, where the small tributaries of the Tana are highly visible and a significant amount of vegetation can be seen. If the image had been captured during the dry season (around June-September), the smaller tributaries and the vegetation growing around them would have dried up.

The river flows alongside the town of Garissa, the capital of Garissa County, and is visible as a greyish patch of land on the east side of the river. Around 5 km south of Garissa lies the Bour-Algi Giraffe Sanctuary, home to around 1000 giraffes and endangered wildlife including the Rothschild giraffe and gerenuk – a long-necked antelope found in the region.

Copernicus Sentinel-2 is a two-satellite mission. Each satellite carries a high-resolution camera that images Earth’s surface in 13 spectral bands. The mission is mostly used to track changes in the way land is being used and to monitor the health of vegetation.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #487 on: 06/25/2021 12:46 pm »
Lake Mar Chiquita, Argentina
25/06/2021

The Copernicus Sentinel-1 mission takes us over Lake Mar Chiquita – an endorheic salt lake in the northeast province of Córdoba, Argentina.

Lake Mar Chiquita, around 70 km long and 24 km wide, is fed primarily by the Primero and Segundo rivers from the southwest and from the Dulce river from the north. While these rivers flow into the lake, there isn’t a natural outflow of water so it only loses water by evaporation, hence Lake Mar Chiquita being described as an endorheic lake. The lake’s surface area, as well as its salinity, varies considerably (ranging between 2000 and 6000 sq km), although it is slowly diminishing in size owing to evaporation.

Several small islands lie in the lake, the most important of which is El Médano. Vast expanses of saline marshes can be seen on the lake’s northern shore. The lake has been designated as a Ramsar Site of International Importance, and is considered one of the most important wetlands in Argentina owing to its rich biodiversity. Over 25 species of fish are known to breed in Lake Mar Chiquita, with fishing and livestock being the principal land uses.

The colours of this week’s image come from the combination of two polarisations from the Sentinel-1 radar mission, which have been converted into a single image.

As radar images provide data in a different way than a normal optical camera, the images are usually black and white when they are received. By using a technology that aligns the radar beams sent and received by the instrument in one orientation – either vertically or horizontally – the resulting data can be processed in a way that produces coloured images such as the one featured here. This technique allows scientists to better analyse Earth’s surface.

Shades of blue in the image show us where the differences between the two polarisations are higher, for example the saline marshes in the lake’s north, whereas the crops and agricultural fields in the surrounding area appear yellow, indicating fewer differences between polarisations. Fields, such as those visible in the bottom-left corner of the image, appear blue most likely because they are wetter. Several villages, including San Francisco and Rafaela, are identifiable in white in the bottom-right of the image.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #488 on: 07/01/2021 03:44 pm »
Canada–US heatwave
01/07/2021

While heatwaves are quite common during the summer months, the scorching heatwave hitting parts of western Canada and the US has been particularly devastating – with temperature records shattered and hundreds of people falling victim to the extreme heat.

Canada broke its temperature record for a third consecutive day: recording a whopping 49.6°C on 29 June in Lytton, a village northeast of Vancouver, in British Columbia.

Portland, Oregon, also broke its all-time temperature record for three days in a row.

The extent of the heatwave can be seen in this map, which shows the land surface temperature of parts of Canada and the US on 29 June. The data show that surface temperatures in Vancouver reached 43°C, and Calgary and Portland recorded 43°C. The hottest temperatures recorded are in the state of Washington (visible in deep red) with maximum land surface temperatures of around 69°C.

The map has been generated using data from the Copernicus Sentinel-3 mission. While weather forecasts typically use air temperatures, the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer onboard Sentinel-3 measures the energy radiating from Earth’s surface. Therefore, the map shows the actual temperature of the land’s surface pictured here, which can be significantly hotter or colder than air temperatures.

The light blue in the image represents either snow and ice or cloud coverage. Snow and ice can be seen, for example, in the mountain ranges of Canada and Mount Rainier in the US, while some clouds can be seen on the Pacific Coast and in the bottom right of the map.

The persistent heat over parts of western Canada and parts of the US has been caused by a heat dome stretching from California to the Arctic. Temperatures have been easing in coastal areas, but there has been little respite for the inland regions.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #489 on: 07/02/2021 08:26 am »
Earth from Space: North Frisian Islands
02/07/2021

Part of the Frisian Islands, a low-lying archipelago just off the coast of northern Europe, is visible in this image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

The Frisian Islands stretch from the northwest of the Netherlands through Germany to the west of Denmark. Although they are considered a single physical feature, they are divided into West, East and North Frisian Islands – with the North Frisian Islands visible here.

The North Frisian Islands are split between Germany and Denmark. There are four larger islands that make up the archipelago: Sylt, Föhr, Amrum, and Pellworm.

Sylt, the largest of the archipelago, is around 100 sq km and is known for its distinctive shape of its shoreline. Sylt extends in length more than 35 km and, in some places, is only 1 km wide. A sandy beach stretches across the islands’ west coast, however it has begun to erode owing to storm tides. The northernmost island of Germany, it is connected to the mainland by the Hindenburgdamm, an 11 km-long causeway.

The Wadden Sea on the islands’ east side, between Sylt and the mainland, is part of the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park and has been a nature reserve and bird sanctuary since 1935.

The islands of Föhr and Amrum are visible southeast of Sylt. The larger Föhr is called the ‘Green Island’ due to it being sheltered from the storms of the North Sea by its neighbouring islands. The island of Amrum features an extended beach area along its west coast, which faces the open North Sea. The east coast borders to mud flats and tidal creeks of the Wadden Sea.

The three white islands visible below Amrum are the North Frisian Barrier Islands. These sand banks, or shoals, act as a natural breakwater for the smaller islands closer to land. Just east of these lies the island of Pellworm.

North of Sylt lies the Danish islands of Rřmř, Mandř, and, lastly, Fanř. In the top-left of the image, a large algal bloom is visible in emerald green. Harmful algal blooms caused by excessive growth of marine algae have occurred in the North Sea in recent years, with satellite data being used to track their growth and spread. These data can then be used to help develop alert systems to mitigate against damaging impacts for tourism and fishing industries.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #490 on: 07/09/2021 12:01 pm »
Gulf of Martaban, Myanmar
09/07/2021

The Gulf of Martaban, an arm of the Andaman Sea located in southern Myanmar, is featured in this false-colour image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission. The image has been processed in a way that included the near-infrared channel – which makes vegetation appear bright red.

The gulf, also known as Gulf of Mottama, is named after the port city of Mottama, formerly known as Martaban. The Gulf of Martaban is considered a unique estuarine mudflat environment that is home to a great variety of flora and fauna. Fed by sediment and nutrients from three major rivers (Sittang, Salween and Yangon), the gulf supports a number of species including marine fish, 150 000 migratory birds as well as supporting the livelihood of tens of thousands of people.

A notable characteristic of the gulf is that it has a tide-dominated coastline, with tidal ranges between six and seven metres. The mouth of the gulf, which is approximately 100 km wide, narrows into a funnel-shaped bay to produce a powerful tidal bore phenomenon that can reach heights of over a metre in the upper estuary. As a result, the tidal mudflats of the gulf are among the largest in the world.

The Sittang River, visible in the right side of the image, originates near Mandalay, Myanmar, and flows southward for around 420 km before emptying into the gulf. Dense vegetation can be seen in bright red, particularly in the left of the image.

The distinct rectangular shape, visible in the upper half of the image, is part of the Moeyungyi Wetland Wildlife Sanctuary, a designated Ramsar Site of International Importance. The site encompasses several artificial lakes and bodies (visible in black). One of the bodies of water appears in light blue most likely owing to eutrophication – the overabundance of algae, phosphorus and other plant nutrients.

The city of Yangon is visible in the bottom-left of the image, at the convergence of the Yangon and Bago Rivers. With over seven million people, Yangon is Myanmar's most populous city and its most important commercial centre. The city served as the country’s capital until 2006.

Sentinel-2 is a two-satellite mission to supply the coverage and data delivery needed for Europe’s Copernicus programme. The mission’s frequent revisits over the same area and high spatial resolution allow changes in water bodies to be closely monitored.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #491 on: 07/16/2021 09:05 am »
Lima, Peru
16/07/2021

Lima, the capital and largest city of Peru, is featured in this Copernicus Sentinel-2 image.

The commercial and industrial centre of Peru, Lima is located on the mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city is bordered on the east by the foothills of the Andes Mountains and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Lima can be seen directly on the south bank of the Rímac River, which flows for around 200 km through the Lima Region, before emptying near Callao – a seaside city and port in the Lima metropolitan area (the largest metropolitan area of Peru).

Lima’s historical centre was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 owing to its large number of historical buildings dating from the Spanish colonial era. One of the most notable characteristics of Lima is the barren desert that surrounds the city, with the sand supporting little to no plant life, with the exception of where water has been artificially provided.

Although Lima is located at a tropical latitude, the cool offshore Humboldt Current (also known as the Peru Current) produces a year-round temperate climate. The cooling of the coastal air mass produces thick cloud cover throughout winter and the dense sea mist, known locally as garúa, often rolls in to blanket the city. In this image, captured on 20 April 2020, several cloud formations can be seen dotted along the coast.

Callao is Peru’s main seaport and home to its main airport, Jorge Chávez International Airport. Several small boats and vessels can be seen near the port. Callao has several islands: San Lorenzo Island (currently used as a military base), El Frontón (a former high security prison), the Cavinzas Islands, and the Palomino Islands, where numerous sea lions and sea birds live.

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission consists of a pair of twin satellites that orbit Earth once every 100 minutes, together imaging a path on Earth’s surface 580 kilometres wide. The satellites observe in 13 spectral bands – from visible to infrared light – giving various perspectives on land and vegetation. This means that the mission can be used to retrieve a wealth of different information about Earth’s surface.

Offline Hobbes-22

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 841
  • Acme Engineering
    • Acme Engineering
  • Liked: 465
  • Likes Given: 398
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #492 on: 07/16/2021 09:21 am »
Some of these Copernicus images were made into posters (available here: https://shop.spreadshirt.net/real-space-images/wall+prints?q=D22), they look amazing as 60x40 cm prints.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #493 on: 07/23/2021 09:04 am »
Tarso Toussidé, Chad
23/07/2021

The Tarso Toussidé volcanic massif is featured in this false-colour composite image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission.

Tarso Toussidé, capped by the Toussidé (potentially active) stratovolcano, is located in the western end of the Tibesti Mountains, in Chad. With an elevation of 3265 m above sea level, Toussidé is the second highest peak in Tibesti, after Emi Koussi.

Toussidé has undergone a number of eruptions and lava flows, with the lava reaching lengths of 25 km and covering an area of 200 sq km, appearing to have ‘stained’ the ground in the process. The volcano ejected tephra, fragments of rock and volcano glass, lava and ash. In the middle of the field lies Pic Toussidé, a lava dome which can be seen poking out of the caldera.

Toussidé is said to be amongst the youngest volcanoes in Tibesti. A large number of fumaroles (openings in or near a volcano through which gases emerge) are active on its summit, exhaling mostly water vapour at temperatures of 40–60 °C – suggesting it is the only active Tibesti volcano.

Just next to Toussidé, in the far-right of the image, lies the Trou au Natron caldera, which sits at an elevation of around 2450 m. A number of volcanic cones sit on the floor of the caldera, with numerous vents and hot springs on the caldera’s floor emitting hot steam.

Much of the surface of the caldera is lined with a white crust of salts, including sodium carbonite. These crusts are usually formed when mineral-rich steam is emitted from small vents on the crater’s floor, and when this evaporates in the heat, the minerals are left behind.

The caldera has an irregular diameter of around 6-8 km and is up to 1000 m deep, and is said to have been filled by a freshwater lake during the last glacial maximum.

In the left of the image, the red shows sparse vegetation along the ephemeral creeks.

Satellite imagery is a practical way to study remote areas such as the volcanic regions in the Tibesti Mountain Range. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission carries a multispectral imager with 13 spectral bands and has a wide swath coverage, delivering data on Earth’s land every five days.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #494 on: 07/30/2021 09:19 am »
Malé, the Maldives
30/07/2021

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over Malé – the capital and most populous city in the Republic of Maldives.

The Republic of Maldives consist of a chain of around 1200 small coral islands that are grouped into clusters of atolls – scattered across 90 000 sq km of ocean. A number of these little islands can be seen in the image, with the turquoise colours depicting clear, shallow waters dotted by coral reefs which contrasts with the dark colours of the Indian Ocean.

Malé, located at the southern edge of the North Malé Atoll, can be easily spotted in the right of the image. The island is small enough to walk around in approximately one hour, with most sights concentrated on its northern shore. Malé is both a trade and tourist centre, connected with Sri Lanka and India by steamship lines, with several vessels visible in the image.

With a population of more than 200 000 and an area of around eight sq km, Malé is one of the most densely populated cities in the world with the city covering almost the entire island.

With more than 80% of the Maldives’ land standing less than one metre above average sea level, the Maldives has the lowest terrain of any country in the world. This makes the archipelago particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise.

In response to this rising threat, the Maldives is working on enhancing the resilience of the country’s islands, which includes constructing the artificial island of Hulhumale – visible northeast of the airport island of Hulhulé.

The island has been constructed by pumping sand from the seafloor onto a submerged coral platform, that rises around 2 m above sea level. The reclaimed land provides some much-needed space, and will also help meet the industrial and commercial development of the Malé region.

Satellite data have shown that the global ocean has risen, on average, 3 mm a year over the last 25 years. Warming ocean waters, melting glaciers and diminishing ice sheets is making rising sea levels a real threat for low-lying islands such as the Maldives.

Following liftoff in November 2020, the Copernicus Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite, the most advanced mission dedicated to measuring sea-level rise, is now fully operational – meaning that its data are available to climate researchers, ocean-weather forecasts and other data users.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #495 on: 08/03/2021 07:13 am »
Smoke billows from fires in Turkey
02/08/2021

Captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-3 mission on 30 July 2021, this image shows smoke billowing from several fires along the southern coast of Turkey. Turkey has been battling deadly wildfires since last week. Over the weekend, tourists and local residents had to be evacuated from Bodrum and Marmaris, with some fleeing by boat as the flames crept closer to the shoreline. Southeast Europe is currently experiencing extremely high temperatures. Greece is reported to be expecting an all-time European record today of 47°C. The heatwave, the result of a heat dome, has seen temperatures reach above 40°C in many areas, and meteorologists expect the weather will continue this week, making it the most severe heatwave since the 1980s.

Fires have also been raging in Spain, Italy and Greece, some of which have led to the Copernicus Emergency Mapping Service being triggered. The mapping service uses data from satellites to aid response to disasters such as wildfires and floods.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #496 on: 08/13/2021 11:16 am »
Wildfires ravage Greek island of Evia
12/08/2021

Parts of the Mediterranean and central Europe have experienced extreme temperatures this summer, with wildfires causing devastation in both Turkey and Greece. The blaze on Evia, Greece’s second-largest island, is one of the worst hit with fires having burned down large forested areas, homes and businesses – forcing thousands to evacuate by sea to save their lives.

This false-colour Copernicus Sentinel-2 image was captured yesterday on 11 August, and has been processed in a way that included the near-infrared channel which is usually used to highlight vegetation (visible in bright red). The image shows the extent of the burned area (visible in shades of brown and green) in the northern part of the island which has suffered the most damage, with an estimated 50 000 hectares lost.

The blaze, fuelled by strong winds, began on 3 August and is still ongoing, with hundreds of firefighters currently tackling the flames.

The heatwave has seen some countries record their highest temperature in decades, with the Italian island of Sicily registering 48.8°C, which may be Europe’s hottest temperature on record. Wildfires have also been raging in other parts of Greece, Italy, Albania and Algeria, prompting activations in the Copernicus Emergency Mapping Service. The mapping service uses data from satellites to aid response to disasters such as wildfires and floods.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #497 on: 09/10/2021 08:43 am »
Danube Delta
10/09/2021


The Danube Delta is a labyrinth of water and land shared between Romania and Ukraine, made up of countless lakes, channels and islands lying at the end of the 2860 km-long river of the same name. The Danube River rises in the Black Forest mountains in Germany and along its course, passes through 10 countries: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine before emptying into the Black Sea.

The Danube Delta covers an area of some 4300 sq km and is known for its abundance of birdlife, as it hosts more than 300 species of birds as well as 45 species of freshwater fish in its numerous lakes and marshes. In 1991, the Romanian part of the Danube Delta became part of UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites.

In this true-colour image, captured in April 2020, the vast reed beds can be seen in shades of brown which is typical during this time of year. The Danube is visible (in the left of the image) before splitting into the various channels and branches that flow through the reeds and grassland before reaching the Black Sea. The distinct light-green colours in the sea are likely due to sediment being carried by the river.

Just south of the Danube Delta lie the lagoons of Razim (Razelm) and Sinoe, visible in emerald green owing to a high concentration of algae. This lagoon complex was formed with the help of the Danube’s alluvial deposits and the gradual eastward movement of the coastal currents caused by the advancement of the delta.

In the top-right of the image lies the Sasyk, or Kunduk, Lagoon in southern Ukraine. The site has been designated as Ramsar Wetland Site as it is important for migrating, breeding and moulting waterbirds.

Data gathered by the Sentinel-2 satellites are used for monitoring land use and changes, land management, agriculture, forestry and natural disasters (floods, forest fires, landslides and erosion). Offering colour vision for the Copernicus programme, Sentinel-2 delivers optical images from the visible to short-wave infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Offline jacqmans

  • Moderator
  • Global Moderator
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 21401
  • Houten, The Netherlands
  • Liked: 7842
  • Likes Given: 312
Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #498 on: 09/16/2021 11:22 am »
California continues to burn
15/09/2021

While wildfires are a natural part of California’s landscape, a severe drought, coupled with extreme temperatures, have sustained several major fires for much of August. As of 14 September, more than 7000 wildfires have been recorded, burning over 900 000 hectares across the state.

The Dixie megablaze, the largest wildfire of the 2021 fire season and the second-largest blaze in recorded state history, has burned more than 388 000 hectares of mainly forested land and has destroyed more than 1200 buildings on its path. The fire, named after the road where is started, began on 13 July in the Feather River Canyon, and as of 14 September, is only 75% contained.

With thousands of firefighters continuing to battle the blaze, several were diverted to help harness the nearby Caldor Fire which has burned more than 88 700 hectares, threatening communities near Lake Tahoe before crossing the state’s border over to Nevada.

The map on the left shows wildfire hotspots along the US West Coast in 2021. Further north, a number of Canadian Provinces, including British Columbia, have also been experiencing intense fires since the end of June.

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission has been used to image the fires. The Sentinel-2 satellites each carry just one instrument – a high-resolution multispectral imager with 13 spectral bands. Captured on 1 September, the smoke and burn scars of the Caldor and Dixie Fires are visible in this image.

According to the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), smoke from the fires in North America has been transported across the continent and out over the Atlantic Ocean towards Europe yet is unlikely to affect Europeans as it is high up in the atmosphere. The smoke has, however, impacted air quality across the US and Canada, where it was much closer to the surface.

The Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite is dedicated to monitoring air pollution by measuring a multitude of trace gases that affect the air we breathe. Images captured on 30 August show the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere caused by the fires. The plumes continued their journey eastwards, across the US even reaching Europe.

Claus Zehner, ESA’s Copernicus Sentinel-5P mission manager, says, “Copernicus satellites like Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-5P allow on one hand the point source detection of fires, and on the other hand, to monitor the movement of the emitted air pollutants over different states in the US and even to another continent like Europe.”

As the fires continue to burn, hot and dry conditions and forecasted thunderstorms have prompted officials to issue warnings through part of the state’s northwest coast.

Climate change is considered a key driver of this trend. In a recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), scientists concluded that that there is an unequivocal link between human activity and global warming. The report pointed to observations showing increases in drought and fires in the western United States, expecting this trend to continue in the future.

https://www.esa.int/Applications/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/California_continues_to_burn

Offline eeergo

Re: Earth from space: image of the week
« Reply #499 on: 09/22/2021 08:42 am »
Not an official "image of the week", but thought this might fit in here, given the recent developments in La Palma (one of the main Canary Islands in Spain, where the Roque de los Muchachos astronomy field on top of the extinct volcano is located, although that area is not foreseen to be affected):

https://twitter.com/CopernicusEMS/status/1440574519555465218
-DaviD-

Tags:
 

Advertisement NovaTech
Advertisement SkyTale Software GmbH
Advertisement Northrop Grumman
Advertisement
Advertisement Brady Kenniston
Advertisement NextSpaceflight
Advertisement Nathan Barker Photography
0