Author Topic: The suborbital thread!  (Read 1374394 times)

Online catdlr

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2300 on: 03/24/2024 08:54 am »
TEXUS 60 HCD#1

Quote
Swedish Space Corp

Launch only: T-1:00  to T+00:30


Entire Livestream
« Last Edit: 03/24/2024 08:55 am by catdlr »
It's Tony De La Rosa, ...I don't create this stuff, I just report it.

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2301 on: 03/25/2024 08:07 pm »
Two press releases about the TEXUS-60 launch.
SSC Esrange and Airbus.

The next launch from Esrange is in early April; S1X-4/M16 (the SubOrbital Express 4 /MASER 16) on a VSB-30.

Considering the superior performance of the RK-IM (Red Kite - Improved Malemute) rocket compared to the VSB-30. And besides the supply chain for the RK & IM compared to S30 and S31. I would not at all be surprised if practically all European suborbital launchers that used VSB-30 will transition to RK-IM or RK-RK.

The Esrange Users Handbook page states that several handbooks will be released in March 2024.
I think DLR MoRaBa also has to update the suborbital rocket systems page in the not to distant future.
Most likely this will happen near the end of 2025.
« Last Edit: 03/25/2024 08:07 pm by Rik ISS-fan »

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2302 on: 03/25/2024 08:24 pm »
A question; does anyone know or could figure out how many Orion (hawk M112) motors are remaining?

Edit to add: two more questions.
What is the reason the Terrier Lynx or just the Lynx (mk.104) have hardly been used for sounding rocket missions?
The Lynx motor has a higher performance than the imp.Orion.
But there have been failures with the RIM-66 SM-2MR.

Could the PAC-3 CRI motor or ESSM motor be useful for suborbital missions?
These motors are the same diameter but shorter than the UP aerospace Spaceloft XL.
« Last Edit: 03/27/2024 08:52 pm by Rik ISS-fan »

Offline Steven Pietrobon

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2303 on: 03/26/2024 06:06 am »
Considering the superior performance of the RK-IM (Red Kite - Improved Malemute) rocket compared to the VSB-30. And besides the supply chain for the RK & IM compared to S30 and S31. I would not at all be surprised if practically all European suborbital launchers that used VSB-30 will transition to RK-IM or RK-RK.

The SSC manifest has the VSB-30 being used up to at least 2030!

https://sscspace.com/uploads/Launching-Program.pdf
Akin's Laws of Spacecraft Design #1:  Engineering is done with numbers.  Analysis without numbers is only an opinion.

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2304 on: 03/26/2024 08:33 am »
Considering the superior performance of the RK-IM (Red Kite - Improved Malemute) rocket compared to the VSB-30. And besides the supply chain for the RK & IM compared to S30 and S31. I would not at all be surprised if practically all European suborbital launchers that used VSB-30 will transition to RK-IM or RK-RK.

The SSC manifest has the VSB-30 being used up to at least 2030!

https://sscspace.com/uploads/Launching-Program.pdf
The Esrange EASP launching program, shows decided missions and missions under consideration.
Decided suborbital rocket missions are:
S1X-4/M16  VSB-30, Early April 2024
STERN III, STAHR Okt. 2024
MAPHEUS-15 RK/IM Okt. 2024
MAIUS3  VSB-30  Nov. 2024
ORIGIN 2x IM Jan. 2025
STERN III Aquasonic III Feb. 2025
REXUS 33/34 2x IO March 2025
STERN III, SR DORADO March 2025
ALDUINA  * April/May 2025
SYSTER  BBV Okt./Nov. 2025

So the decided schedule has two VSB-30 rocket missions remaining.
The German Luftwaffe transported 4x S30 and 3x S31 from Brazil to Esrange, Sweden in February 2024.
This was an urgent transport to allow the launch of TEXUS-59 and 60 on schedule.
From this transport there is one S31 and two S30 remaining.
DLR MoRaBa ordered 30 Red Kite motors from Bayern Chemie. If I've counted correctly, four motors have been used. (Two static test, the SOAR launch from Andoya and the MAPHEUS-14 RK-IM). 

Edit to add:
Let me give an example of a change in the SSC launch schedule. HIFLIER 1 launched 10th Okt. 2023 on a BBV. 
On the schedule from 20 Sept. 2020 it was under consideration for launch on a IM-IO May 2022.
On the schedule from 24 Nov. 2022 it was decided for launch on a IM-IO June 2023.
Another change is SYSTER now decided for launch on BBV Okt./Nov. 2025.
On the 22 sept. 2020 launch program it was under consideration for Okt.2023 on a S30.

Edit2:
Also on the launch schedule is the ReFEx VSB-30 launch from Southern Launch, Koonibba test range.
« Last Edit: 03/26/2024 01:49 pm by Rik ISS-fan »

Offline MiqBos

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2305 on: 03/31/2024 06:39 pm »
A question; does anyone know or could figure out how many Orion (hawk M112) motors are remaining?

Edit to add: two more questions.
What is the reason the Terrier Lynx or just the Lynx (mk.104) have hardly been used for sounding rocket missions?
The Lynx motor has a higher performance than the imp.Orion.
But there have been failures with the RIM-66 SM-2MR.

Could the PAC-3 CRI motor or ESSM motor be useful for suborbital missions?
These motors are the same diameter but shorter than the UP aerospace Spaceloft XL.

I have no idea of how many Improved Orion are in storage. But the actual or potential surplus Hawk missiles available have diminished because of the war in Ukraine (https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/aviation/a46514155/ukraine-is-deploying-the-hawk/).

 As for the lesser use of Lynx (TU-876 Mk 104) it might be that it was less produced. Besides the US and maybe Japan, the inventories of Standard missiles are apparently limited (judging by the number of ships capable of firing them).

There are many military rocket motors that could be used. Besides PAC-3 and ESSM there are new rocket designs that are coming to service like the Extended Range GMLRS (similar diameter to the ESSM but longer, with a composite casing and Insensitive Munition design). But the costs related to use newly made rocket military motors might be quite high.

I think there’s an opportunity for “New Space” companies to capture part of the suborbital market. As an example, the Polish “Perun” suborbital rocket is designed to carry a 50 kg payload to an apogee of 150 km. An Improved Orion can get about 40 kg of payload to an apogee of 110 km.

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2306 on: 04/01/2024 11:44 am »
The (TU-876) mk104 sustainer motor, is used in four different air defence missiles:
RIM-66 Standard Missile 2 medium range (SM-2MR).
RIM-67B Standard missile 2 Extended range (SM-2ER), the Terrier mk70 is used as booster)
(RIM-156 SM-2 ER block IV)/ RIM-174 Standard missile 6 ERAM (SM-6) with the mk.72 as booster.
RIM-161 Standard missile 3 Block 1/1A & 1B, with the Mk.72 booster and mk136 as third stage.
The RIM-66 SM-2MR (block IIIA)  has a much larger user base, AFAIK there is a SM-2 and ESSM missile maintenance facility in the Netherlands. Apparently >5000 SM-2 missiles have been produced.
I've read that two missiles exploded in 2015 (USS The Sullivan) and 2018 (F-219 Sachsen) just after launch from a MK-41 VLS. both resulted in significant damage to the naval vessels.

Offline MiqBos

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2307 on: 04/03/2024 09:52 am »
Maybe part of the stock of (TU-876) Mk104 rocket motors is not available for safety reasons. A USNI article reports after the 2015 incident:
Quote
SM-2s with the older Mk 104 Mod 2 Dual Thrust Rocket Motors (DTRM) manufactured by the defunct Thiokol Corporation (now part of Orbital ATK) before 1992 — which also manufactured the shuttle programs SRBs — have been placed on the “Wartime Use Only” list, USNI News has learned.
Source:https://news.usni.org/2015/07/27/navy-restricts-use-of-a-number-of-sm-2-missiles-following-uss-the-sullivans-launch-failure

If we are talking about how to substitute the Improved Orion rocket, another factor is the payload diameter. NASA and MORABA seem to have almost standardized in 17.26 and (to a lesser degree) 14 inches diameter payload. The majority of these alternative military rockets are narrower, with 9 to around 11 inches diameter. Those might be able to use a 14 inches diameter payload section only if paired with a bigger booster section, but not a single stage rocket.

Do you think it is more plausible to develop a new payload system of about 10 inches diameter, or to just put more experiment in bigger rockets?

For example, a common practice is ESRANGE is to launch two Improved Orion rockets as part of the REXUS research program each year. They can launch a 120 kg payload to an 8 km apogee. An Improved Malemute single stage could launch 240 kg to a 12 km apogee.

Offline edkyle99

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2308 on: 04/07/2024 02:48 pm »
Three eclipse launches planned from Wallops on Monday, April 8, 2024.
Looks like three Black Brant 9 (Terrier/Black Brant) sounding rockets.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/why-scientists-chasing-eclipse-sounding-191844641.html
https://sites.wff.nasa.gov/code810/futuremissions.html
https://sites.wff.nasa.gov/code810/news/story295-36.392%20393%20394%20APEP.html
36.392 UE BARJATYA/EMBRY-RIDDLE UNIVERSITY APEP 04/08/24
36.393 UE BARJATYA/EMBRY-RIDDLE UNIVERSITY APEP 04/08/24
36.394 UE BARJATYA/EMBRY-RIDDLE UNIVERSITY APEP 04/08/24

"Three identical payloads will be launched during the Total Eclipse occuring April 8, 2024. The first payload will launch approximately 45-minutes before peak local eclipse, the second at peak local eclipse, and the third approximately 45-minutes past peak local eclipse. "

Only around 81% totality at Wallops itself.  Max at 3:22 PM ET.

 - Ed Kyle
« Last Edit: 04/07/2024 02:58 pm by edkyle99 »

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2309 on: 04/09/2024 02:31 pm »
For example, a common practice is ESRANGE is to launch two Improved Orion rockets as part of the REXUS research program each year. They can launch a 120 kg payload to an 80 km apogee.
An Improved Malemute single stage could launch 240 kg to a 120 km apogee.
Sorry I corrected the performance numbers.

I think the TU-876/ Mk104 SM-2MR motor with a diameter of 13.5" could replace the M112 Hawk/imp. Orion motor when those are no longer available. REXUS uses the 14" payload system.
The majority of these alternative military rockets are narrower, with 9 to around 11 inches diameter. Those might be able to use a 14 inches diameter payload section only if paired with a bigger booster section, but not a single stage rocket.
Do you think it is more plausible to develop a new payload system of about 10 inches diameter, or to just put more experiment in bigger rockets?
I was thinking about using the SpaceLoft XL payload system, that has ~10" diameter. That's about the same diameter as PAC-3 CRI and ESSM (mk134)
DLR and NASA also use a 7" (178mm) payload system. NASA used both 4" and 9" on the MesOrion missions (12.089
 12.090). Several university teams have successfully developed payload systems. I think getting a supply of affordable motors is a more difficult problem then the development of a payload system.

I was surprised to find out that NASA isn't (jet) using the improved Malemute as single stage suborbital rocket.
DLR MoRaBa has collaborated with NASA to certify the single stage Improved Malamute. DLR MoRaBa has used it 7 times as sounding rocket. NASA/DOD has used it twice as target.
DLR MORABA also developed multi stage rockets using the Imp. Malemute motor; S31-IM => RK-IM, IM-IM and IM-IO.
In Europe there isn't a supply of surplus booster motors, because the militaries didn't operate long range missiles and air defence systems. NASA has Terrier mk.12/mk.70 and Talos mk11 boosters, for this purpose.
DLR MoRaBa developed and ordered S31 and Red Kite motors for this purpose.
I was also surprised by the capability of the single stage Black Brand V (NASA 21.) that DLR also went to use again.
With the Hiflier mission the ~400kg payload was lifted to 190km altitude.

Is there a need for new metreological rockets; the sounding Dart's?
T-minus is developing motors for this purpose. And I think the Dawn Aerospace mk.2 Aurora could also be used for this purpose.

Sources: [1] DLR: MORABA Launch Vehicles_2020-5.pdf
[2] NASA: Sounding Rocket 2023 annual report 2023.
Edit to add: NASA published it's 2024 Q1 rocket report. (Souning Rocket Program Office Quarterly Newsletter)
« Last Edit: 04/09/2024 04:20 pm by Rik ISS-fan »

Offline edkyle99

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2310 on: 04/09/2024 06:29 pm »
NASA got off all three Black Brant 9 rockets on April 8 from Wallops.
https://www.nasa.gov/image-article/nasa-wallops-launches-3-rockets-during-eclipse-in-virginia/

 - Ed Kyle
« Last Edit: 04/09/2024 06:31 pm by edkyle99 »

Offline MiqBos

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2311 on: 04/11/2024 07:19 am »
Rik ISS-fan thank you for your corrections and insights. I concur that the TU-876/ Mk104 rocket motor could offer an interesting performance.

I have read the information about the MesOrion missions on Sounding Rockets Program Office's sounding rocket annual reports from 2022 and 2023. These are the relevant quotes:

Quote
Two other technology flights are scheduled for FY 2023 to test a new vehicle configuration specifically aimed for Mesospheric research. The Science community has expressed a need for a type of vehicle that enables high launch cadence, is relatively easy to stage, is cost effective, and reaches altitudes of about 125 km. Our first design uses a single stage Orion, with a dart front-end housing the scientific instrumentation. The project named MesOrion, currently includes two test flights scheduled for launch in early 2023.

Quote
Two MesOrion vehicles, single stage Improved Orion vehicles with 4-inch (12.089) and 9-inch (12.090) diameter payloads were launched on February 16, 2023. The launches were a feasibility study for using Improved Orions for mesospheric research, with simplified operational requirements and rapid launch sequences. The goal for these testflights was to reach apogees between 70 and 125 km.
Both vehicles performed well with 12.089 reaching an altitude of ~129 km, and 12.090 reaching ~125 km. Further development will include adding instrumentation, miniaturization of payload systems and developing a nosecone separation systems. Additionally, development of rapid rail staging will continue. A two stage “small motor” vehicle is also being evaluated.

Quote
High Cadence Mesospheric Capability:
MesOrion Vehicle Pathfinder, flown as Edwards 12.089 and 12.090.
Mesospheric Payload and Systems Development, planned for a future flight in 2024/2025.
Mesospheric 2-Stage Vehicle Development, planned for a future flight in 2025/2026.
This year the program assembled, tested, and flew two single stage Orion missions from Wallops flightfacility as part of a pathfinder for the development of a vehicle that will carry high cadence payloads to study themesosphere. Engineering teams began the planning and development of the necessary payload systems for afuture flight of a mesospheric payload as well as a 2-stage mesospheric vehicle capability.”

So they are developing a 4 and 9 inches payload system. 9 inches was a standard used with the Tomahawk sounding rocket/stage. I'm curious about the 2-stage  “small motor” rocket they are developing. Which rocket motors will they use? In any case, a 9-inch payload should be compatible with the military (and private developed) rockets motors that we mentioned (with 10 to 13 inches diameter): SpaceLoft XL, Mk104 (SM-2/SM-6), Mk134 (ESSM)...

I don't think there's much demand for metrological rockets, satellites and balloons seem to cover the data collecting that was done with them before.
« Last Edit: 04/12/2024 06:44 am by MiqBos »

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2312 on: 04/11/2024 05:19 pm »
I stumbled upon a linkedin post: Frank Scheuerpflug_Looking forward to presenting at HiSST 2024 
The Team Leader Launch Services, DLR MoRaBa, about the Red Kite motor. and it's usability for hypersonic research.
Apparently there is another rocket configuration planned. The three stage RK-RK-BBV.

Edit to add: I think the 14" payload systems are most usable with the 13.5" Lynx motor.

I think the mission cost for metrological rockets with the available rockets is to high for the available budget. When more affordable (smaller) rockets become available again. I expect there will be a significant demand. (~10 launches a year, when cost is <0.1mln/launch)

I also stubbled upon this article: Rocketing Ahead; T-Minus Engineering's journey to space.
About T-minus Engineering. They are manufacturing rocket motors that classify as metrological rockets.
In this article the need for metrological rockets is described.
Quote
Observations from space by satellites allow us to see the big picture of weather systems, greenhouse gases and the hole in the ozone layer. However, satellites are not well suited to provide a complete profile of the atmosphere from ground to space. Phenomena such as coupling between different atmospheric layers play an important role in large and long-term weather systems. The chemical composition of the atmosphere, including different gases, ions, electrons and aerosols (small particles) also play an important role.
In recent years, for example, we have seen a large increase in very high clouds around 80 km altitude (Polar Mesospheric Clouds, also called Noctilucent clouds). Where do they come from? What effect do they have? To study these phenomena, so-called in-situ measurements are needed.
The article also contains pictures of a launch of a the Barracuda rocket (~Ø8.5x180"), most likely with a smaller solid rocket motor.
(I'll be bad this time and share the picture)
« Last Edit: 04/11/2024 10:31 pm by Rik ISS-fan »

Offline MiqBos

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2313 on: 04/12/2024 04:00 pm »
I think the mission cost for metrological rockets with the available rockets is to high for the available budget. When more affordable (smaller) rockets become available again. I expect there will be a significant demand. (~10 launches a year, when cost is <0.1mln/launch)

You seem to be right, in fact the 2-stage “small motor” vehicle under study may come from an old requirement
to have this capability again. On the January 2003 the Sounding Rocket Working Group stated:
Quote
The current inventory of NASA sounding rockets are not optimum for exploring the 50 to 120 km region. The single stage Orion vehicle barely reaches 90 km and the more complex two-stage Nike-Orion typically take payloads above this region. (...) The SRWG strongly recommends that Wallops develop a low-cost sounding rocket system for studying the 50 to 120 km region.  Experience with the small 2 inch Viper Dart systems has shown that a larger (e.g., 4 to 6-inch) system may be better suited for science payloads(...)
Source: https://rscience.gsfc.nasa.gov/mt_03_jan_find.html

If they want to use a 4-inch payload, as the one tested on 2023, they could use quite small rocket motors. For example, the rocket motors from Zuni rockets or AIM-9 missiles. Although, if they propose a 2-stage rocket, they may need custom-build rocket motors.

Online catdlr

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2314 on: 04/12/2024 05:23 pm »
https://twitter.com/planet4589/status/1778835682112200933

Quote
Jonathan McDowell
@planet4589
LAUNCH of a suborbital missile test from GTsMP-4 (Kapustin Yar) near Volgograd in Russia to the GNIIP-10 range at Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan at about 1600 or 1630 UTC Apr 12. Apogee at least 1000 km, observed widely across the Middle East. The yellow straight line shows approx path
It's Tony De La Rosa, ...I don't create this stuff, I just report it.

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2315 on: 04/12/2024 07:48 pm »
Quote
Jonathan McDowell
@planet4589
LAUNCH of a suborbital missile test from GTsMP-4 (Kapustin Yar) near Volgograd in Russia to the GNIIP-10 range at Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan at about 1600 or 1630 UTC Apr 12. Apogee at least 1000 km, observed widely across the Middle East. The yellow straight line shows approx path
That's scary, that's 2100km (1305 mi) range, or a MRBM. If it was launched in another direction, it could have reached Finland, Poland near the German border, Austria, Israel/Gaza. please quite this arms race.

How high is the risk of collision with a satellite with such a launch?
This is a more general question I've got for long duration suborbital missions.
The number of satellites in 400 - 800km orbit has increased by thousands the past couple of years, with all the LEO constellations. How problematic is it going to be to schedule a launch that goes higher than 300km?
_________

...
If they want to use a 4-inch payload, as the one tested on 2023, they could use quite small rocket motors. For example, the rocket motors from Zuni rockets or AIM-9 missiles. Although, if they propose a 2-stage rocket, they may need custom-build rocket motors.
As far as I know, this is not true. An AIM-9 Sidewinder missile motor (Mk.36), without payload mass, can not reach the Karmanline. A lot larger rocket motor is required.
The sidewinder was used as booster motor for the Arcas metrological rocket.

If I'm not mistaken NASA was studying the use of M26/MLRS with the Mesquito dart vehicle for this purpose in 2009.
12.068 GT HALL/HICKMAN/NASA WALLOPS FLIGHT FACILITY12-16-2009
A M26/MLRS vehicle was launched from Wallops Flight Facility, VA on December 16, 2009. The purpose of this mission is to evaluate the performance of new vehicle configuration under development. The Principal Investigator team consists of Brian Hall and John Hickman, both NASA Wallops Flight Facility, VA.

The Mesquito vehicle consists of a 4.5 inch Dart propelled to 90 - 100 km with an US Army M26 Basic Multiple Launch System Rocket (MLRS) motor, and is intended for temporal and spatial measurements in the lower Mesosphere.
Possibly the motors from surplus AMRAAM could be usable.
The motor T-minus Engineering uses in the TME Kingfisher and TME Barracuda (215-7-S) could also do such a mission.
Another option is the TME 116-9-S motor T-Minus engineering uses for their Dart rocket, but with a single or dual grain motor (116-1-S or 116-2-S) second stage motor in the dart. Kingfisher dart ~70mm [2.75-3"] qualification launch on 116-1-S
« Last Edit: 04/12/2024 08:24 pm by Rik ISS-fan »

Offline geminy007

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2316 on: 04/12/2024 08:36 pm »
I think I got it from LH612 ...

Sorry for the poor quality

Offline Rik ISS-fan

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2317 on: 04/14/2024 08:35 pm »
SSC has updated their launching program on 12 April.
https://sscspace.com/esrange/rocket-ballon-activities/ Launching Programme

In the winter 2024/2025 period the planned launches are:
3x STERN III (German0 student experimental rockets;
STAHR Okt.2024; Aquasonic III Feb. 2025 & SR Dorado Mar.2025.
MAPHEUS-15 on RK/IM Nov. 2024
S1X-4/M16 on VSB-30 Nov. 2024
ORIGIN 2x IM Jan/Feb. 2025
REXUS 33/34 2xImp. Orion (IO) MAR.2025
ALDUINA (experimental hybrid stage) Apr./May 2025
[Tentative:] ASTREOS-1 France (Perseus0 student liquid rocket. May. 2025.

Two another thing stood out for me.
First one is the MAPHEUS series. This just transitioned from IM/IM to RK/IM with MAPHEUS-14.
Also for MAPHEUS-15 /-17 RK/IM launches are planned. For -18 a RK/IM launch is considered.
For -19 to 21 they consider RK/RK.
Secondly the under consideration schedule for 2026 contains US TMA 2x BBV or BB IX (Nasa 21. / 36.) and LAMP 2 BB IX. So besides the reintroduction of BBV in the rockets used by DLR MoRaBa. Also the Terrier BlackBrand (BB IX NASA 36.) is going to be launched from Esrange.
« Last Edit: 04/14/2024 09:05 pm by Rik ISS-fan »

Offline Lewis007

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Re: The suborbital thread!
« Reply #2318 on: 04/19/2024 07:07 pm »
Two launches from Poker Flat on April 17:
36.371 NS SAVAGE/NASA MARSHALL SPACE FLIGTH CENTER
April 17, 2024
Hi-C Flare (High resolution Coronal imager solar Flare)
36.371 NS Terrier-Black Brant sounding rocket was launched from Poker Flat Reserch Range on May 17, 2024. The science goals of the Hi-C Flare experiment is to determine 1) the mechanisms that drive continual heating of flares into the decay phase, 2) how energy is transferred from the corona to the chromosphere during flares, and 3) the morphology of the source regions associated with particles that are accelerated into the heliosphere. 36.371 Savage is a refly of 36.342 Winebarger with some new hardware and component-level modifications, and was the fourth flight of the Hi-C instrument.

The Hi-C Flare experiment is part of a planned campaign that includes three solar physics payloads, with launches taking place from Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), AK. The science goals of the Hi-C Flare experiment is to determine 1) the mechanisms that drive continual heating of flares into the decay phase, 2) how energy is transferred from the corona to the chromosphere during flares, and 3) the morphology of the source regions associated with particles that are accelerated into the heliosphere. 36.371 Savage is a refly of 36.342 Winebarger with some new hardware and component-level modifications, and was the fourth flight of the Hi-C instrument.

During the launch window in April 2024, solar activity was monitored by scientists using data from the NOAA operated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). When data from GOES indicated a solar flare is occurring, the payloads were launched to study the event. By analyzing previous solar cycles, scientists estimate that the opportunity of capturing a flare in progress is fairly high during the selected launch window.
The Hi-C instrument is optimized for detecting high temperature flare lines.
The Principal Investigator is Dr. Savage/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

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36.370 US GLESENER/UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
April 17, 2024
FOXSI-4 (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager)
36.370 US Terrier-Black Brant sounding rocket was launched from Poker Flat Reserch Range on May 17, 2024. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager payload (FOXSI) has flown previously as36.255, 36.295, and 36.325. The science objective of 36.370 was to develop an instrument that studies hard and soft X-raysusing direct focusing optics, and to advance toward understanding the high-energy aspects of solar flares.

The FOXSI-4 experiment is part of a planned campaign that includes three solar physics payloads, with launches taking place from Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), AK. During the launch window in April 2024, solar activity was monitored by scientists using data from the NOAA operated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). When data from GOES indicated a solar flare is occurring, the payloads were launched to study the event. By analyzing previous solar cycles, scientists estimate that the opportunity of capturing a flare in progress is fairly high during the selected launch window.
The science objective of 36.370 was to develop an instrument that studies hard and soft X-raysusing direct focusing optics, and to advance toward understanding the high-energy aspects of solar flares.

The Principal Investigator is Dr. Glesener//University of Minnesota.


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