Author Topic: NASA - Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite ( TESS ) updates  (Read 92933 times)

Offline Rondaz

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TESS finds two new warm Jupiters

18:54 21 July 2022

Astronomers have confirmed two new exoplanet discoveries with the TESS space telescope. The telescope found two warm Jupiters orbiting sun-like stars that may have migrated through their systems in the past. A preprint of the work is available at arXiv.org.

Most of the known exogiants found by the transit method are hot Jupiters with periods of revolution around their stars of less than ten days, which are characterized by a high temperature of the outer layers. Due to their proximity to parent stars, their orbits cannot provide enough information about the mechanism of formation of such objects. However, the orbital parameters of exogiants more distant from stars, such as warm Jupiters, are less influenced by the parent star. Their orbital periods are in the range from 10 to 200 days, as in the case of hot Jupiters, if warm Jupiters do not form in the orbits where they are found, then there is a need for a mechanism for the planet to migrate through the system, from the point of formation to the point of detection.

A team of astronomers led by Solčne Ulmer-Moll of the Geneva Observatory in Switzerland announced the confirmation of two new discoveries of warm Jupiters, designated NGTS-20b (TOI-5152b) and TOI-5153b. The objects were initially detected by the TESS space telescope using the transit method, later the discoveries were confirmed by the radial velocity method using the CORALIE, FEROS, HARPS, CHIRON and TRES spectrographs installed on ground-based telescopes, and by the transit method using the NGTS (Next Generation) ground-based telescope system. transit survey).

In the case of NGTS-20b, the host star has a mass of 1.47 solar masses, a radius of 1.78 solar radii, and a spectral type of G1. An exoplanet with a mass of 2.98 Jupiter masses and a radius of 1.07 Jupiter radii revolves around it with a period of 54.19 hours. The orbital eccentricity of NGTS-20b is 0.432, and the equilibrium temperature is 688 Kelvin. The age of the system is estimated to be between 1.4 and 6.8 billion years, it is located at a distance of about 1200 light years from the Sun.

The parent star of the planet TOI-5153b is of type F8, has a mass of 1.24 solar masses and a radius of 1.4 solar radii. The exoplanet itself has an orbital period of 20.33 days, a mass of 3.26 Jupiter masses, and a radius of 1.06 Jupiter radii. The orbital eccentricity of the exogiant is 0.091, the equilibrium temperature is 906 kelvin. The age of the system is estimated at 5.4 billion years, and the distance to it is about 1270 light years.

Both exoplanets are enriched in metals, and their abundances of heavy elements are consistent with mass-to-metallicity models for gas giants. It is hypothesized that they may have formed through a high eccentricity migration process or migrated towards the star due to interactions with an undetected companion. Further observations should more accurately determine their nature.

Earlier, we talked about how TESS found two rocky exoplanets around a red dwarf very close to the Sun and an ultra-hot Jupiter falling into a star.

Alexander Voytyuk

https://nplus1.ru/news/2022/07/21/tess-new-exogiants

Offline briantipton

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In the case of NGTS-20b, the host star has a mass of 1.47 solar masses, a radius of 1.78 solar radii, and a spectral type of G1. An exoplanet with a mass of 2.98 Jupiter masses and a radius of 1.07 Jupiter radii revolves around it with a period of 54.19 hours.



That should be 54.19 days, not hours

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2022/tess-status-update

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Oct 12, 2022

TESS Status Update

NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) entered into safe mode on Monday, Oct. 10. The spacecraft is in a stable configuration that suspends science observations. Preliminary investigation revealed that the TESS flight computer experienced a reset.

The TESS operations team reported that science data not yet sent to the ground appears to be safely stored on the satellite. Recovery procedures and investigations are underway to resume normal operations, which could take several days.

TESS launched in April 2018 and has since discovered more than 250 exoplanets – worlds beyond our solar system – and thousands of additional candidates. The agency will provide additional updates at www.nasa.gov/tess.

Media contact: Alise Fisher, NASA Headquarters / Claire Andreoli, NASA Goddard
Last Updated: Oct 12, 2022
Editor: Francis Reddy

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2022/tess-status-update/

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Oct 14, 2022

TESS Status Update
TESS Resumes Normal Operations


NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey (TESS) began its return to normal operations on Thursday, Oct. 13, at around 6:30 p.m. EDT. Engineers successfully powered up the instrument, and the spacecraft resumed its regular fine-pointing mode. The team expects that TESS will resume science observations later today, and all science data stored on the spacecraft will be downlinked at the next opportunity.

TESS entered into safe mode on Oct. 10 following a reset of its flight computer. The team will spend the next several days analyzing data to determine the cause. 

Launched in 2018, TESS has been scanning almost the entire sky looking for planets beyond our solar system, known as exoplanets. TESS has also uncovered other cosmic phenomena, including star-shredding black holes and stellar oscillations. Read more about TESS discoveries at www.nasa.gov/tess.

Media contact: Alise Fisher, NASA Headquarters / Claire Andreoli, NASA Goddard

Offline FutureSpaceTourist

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https://twitter.com/haygenwarren/status/1582416124255211522

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On October 13, NASA's TESS spacecraft successfully returned to operations after entering safe mode due to a flight computer reset.

Meanwhile, researchers used TESS & Spitzer data to determine the presence of an atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet ⬇️

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2022/10/tess-safe-mode-incident/

Offline Star One

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A Low-Mass Pre-Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary in Lower Centaurus Crux Discovered with TESS

We report the discovery of 2M1222-57 as a low-mass, pre-main-sequence (PMS) eclipsing binary (EB) in the Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC) association for which, using Gaia parallaxes and proper motions with a neural-net age estimator, we determine an age of 16.2±2.2 Myr. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) shows clear excess at ~10 um indicative of a circumbinary disk, and new speckle-imaging observations reveal a faint, tertiary companion separated by ~100 AU. H-alpha emission is modulated on the orbital period, consistent with theoretical models of orbitally pulsed accretion streams reaching from the inner disk edge to the central stars. From a joint analysis of spectroscopically determined radial velocities and TESS light curves, together with additional tight constraints provided by the SED and the Gaia parallax, we measure masses for the eclipsing stars of 0.74 Msun and 0.67 Msun; radii of 0.98 Rsun and 0.94 Rsun; and effective temperatures of 3750 K and 3645 K. The masses and radii of both stars are measured to an accuracy of ~1%. The measured radii are inflated, and the temperatures suppressed, relative to predictions of standard PMS evolutionary models at the age of LCC; also, the Li abundances are ~2 dex less depleted than predicted by those models. However, models that account for the global and internal effects of surface magnetic fields are able to simultaneously reproduce the measured radii, temperatures, and Li abundances at an age of 17.0±0.5 Myr. Altogether, the 2M1222-57 system presents very strong evidence that magnetic activity in young stars alters both their global properties and the physics of their interiors.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2211.07899

Offline Star One

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HD 20329b: An ultra-short-period planet around a solar-type star found by TESS

We used TESS light curves and HARPS-N spectrograph radial velocity measurements to establish the physical properties of the transiting exoplanet candidate found around the star HD 20329 (TOI-4524). We performed a joint fit of the light curves and radial velocity time series to measure the mass, radius, and orbital parameters of the candidate. We confirm and characterize HD 20329b, an ultra-short-period (USP) planet transiting a solar-type star. The host star (HD 20329, V=8.74 mag, J=7.5 mag) is characterized by its G5 spectral type with M=0.90±0.05 M, R=1.13±0.02 R, and Teff=5596±50 K; it is located at a distance d=63.68±0.29 pc. By jointly fitting the available TESS transit light curves and follow-up radial velocity measurements, we find an orbital period of 0.9261±(0.5×10−4) days, a planetary radius of 1.72±0.07 R⊕, and a mass of 7.42±1.09 M⊕, implying a mean density of ρp=8.06±1.53 g cm−3. HD 20329b joins the ∼30 currently known USP planets with radius and Doppler mass measurements.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2211.02547

Offline Star One

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Spinning up a Daze: TESS Uncovers a Hot Jupiter orbiting the Rapid-Rotator TOI-778

NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, has been uncovering a growing number of exoplanets orbiting nearby, bright stars. Most exoplanets that have been discovered by TESS orbit narrow-line, slow-rotating stars, facilitating the confirmation and mass determination of these worlds. We present the discovery of a hot Jupiter orbiting a rapidly rotating (vsin(i)=35.1±1.0km/s) early F3V-dwarf, HD115447 (TOI-778). The transit signal taken from Sectors 10 and 37 of TESS's initial detection of the exoplanet is combined with follow-up ground-based photometry and velocity measurements taken from Minerva-Australis, TRES, CORALIE and CHIRON to confirm and characterise TOI-778b. A joint analysis of the light curves and the radial velocity measurements yield a mass, radius, and orbital period for TOI-778b of 2.76+0.24−0.23Mjup, 1.370±0.043Rjup and ∼4.63 days, respectively. The planet orbits a bright (V=9.1mag) F3-dwarf with M=1.40±0.05Msun, R=1.70±0.05Rsun, and logg=4.05±0.17. We observed a spectroscopic transit of TOI-778b, which allowed us to derive a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of 18±11, consistent with an aligned planetary system. This discovery demonstrates the capability of smaller aperture telescopes such as Minerva-Australis to detect the radial velocity signals produced by planets orbiting broad-line, rapidly rotating stars.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2212.08242

Offline Yiosie

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NASA’s TESS Discovers Planetary System’s Second Earth-Size World [dated Jan. 10]

Quote from: NASA
Using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scientists have identified an Earth-size world, called TOI 700 e, orbiting within the habitable zone of its star – the range of distances where liquid water could occur on a planet’s surface. The world is 95% Earth’s size and likely rocky.

Astronomers previously discovered three planets in this system, called TOI 700 b, c, and d. Planet d also orbits in the habitable zone. But scientists needed an additional year of TESS observations to discover TOI 700 e.

“This is one of only a few systems with multiple, small, habitable-zone planets that we know of,” said Emily Gilbert, a postdoctoral fellow at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California who led the work. “That makes the TOI 700 system an exciting prospect for additional follow up. Planet e is about 10% smaller than planet d, so the system also shows how additional TESS observations help us find smaller and smaller worlds.”

Gilbert presented the result on behalf of her team at the 241st meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle. A paper about the newly discovered planet was accepted by The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

TOI 700 is a small, cool M dwarf star located around 100 light-years away in the southern constellation Dorado. In 2020, Gilbert and others announced the discovery of the Earth-size, habitable-zone planet d, which is on a 37-day orbit, along with two other worlds.

The innermost planet, TOI 700 b, is about 90% Earth’s size and orbits the star every 10 days. TOI 700 c is over 2.5 times bigger than Earth and completes an orbit every 16 days. The planets are probably tidally locked, which means they spin only once per orbit such that one side always faces the star, just as one side of the Moon is always turned toward Earth.

TESS monitors large swaths of the sky, called sectors, for approximately 27 days at a time. These long stares allow the satellite to track changes in stellar brightness caused by a planet crossing in front of its star from our perspective, an event called a transit. The mission used this strategy to observe the southern sky starting in 2018, before turning to the northern sky. In 2020, it returned to the southern sky for additional observations. The extra year of data allowed the team to refine the original planet sizes, which are about 10% smaller than initial calculations.

“If the star was a little closer or the planet a little bigger, we might have been able to spot TOI 700 e in the first year of TESS data,” said Ben Hord, a doctoral candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park and a graduate researcher at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “But the signal was so faint that we needed the additional year of transit observations to identify it.”

TOI 700 e, which may also be tidally locked, takes 28 days to orbit its star, placing planet e between planets c and d in the so-called optimistic habitable zone.

Offline jebbo

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The paper is here: https://arxiv.org/abs/2301.03617

--- Tony

Offline Star One

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Related NASA video:


Offline Star One

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TOI-3984 A b and TOI-5293 A b: two temperate gas giants transiting mid-M dwarfs in wide binary systems

We confirm the planetary nature of two gas giants discovered by TESS to transit M dwarfs with stellar companions at wide separations. TOI-3984 A (J=11.93) is an M4 dwarf hosting a short-period (4.353326±0.000005 days) gas giant (Mp=0.14±0.03 MJ and Rp=0.71±0.02 RJ) with a wide separation white dwarf companion. TOI-5293 A (J=12.47) is an M3 dwarf hosting a short-period (2.930289±0.000004 days) gas giant (Mp=0.54±0.07 MJ and Rp=1.06±0.04 RJ) with a wide separation M dwarf companion. We characterize both systems using a combination of ground-based and space-based photometry, speckle imaging, and high-precision radial velocities from the Habitable-zone Planet Finder and NEID spectrographs. TOI-3984 A b (Teq=563±15 K and TSM=138+29−27) and TOI-5293 A b (Teq=675+42−30 K and TSM=92±14) are two of the coolest gas giants among the population of hot Jupiter-sized gas planets orbiting M dwarfs and are favorable targets for atmospheric characterization of temperate gas giants and three-dimensional obliquity measurements to probe system architecture and migration scenarios.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2302.07714

Offline Star One

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LHS 475 b: A Venus-sized Planet Orbiting a Nearby M Dwarf

Based on photometric observations by TESS, we present the discovery of a Venus-sized planet transiting LHS 475, an M3 dwarf located 12.5 pc from the Sun. The mass of the star is 0.274±0.015 MSun. The planet, originally reported as TOI 910.01, has an orbital period of 2.0291025±0.0000020 days and an estimated radius of 0.955±0.053 REarth. We confirm the validity and source of the transit signal with MEarth ground-based follow-up photometry of five individual transits. We present radial velocity data from CHIRON that rule out massive companions. In accordance with the observed mass-radius distribution of exoplanets as well as planet formation theory, we expect this Venus-sized companion to be terrestrial, with an estimated RV semi-amplitude close to 1.0 m/s. LHS 475 b is likely too hot to be habitable but is a suitable candidate for emission and transmission spectroscopy.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2304.01920

Offline Star One

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The GAPS programme at TNG XLV. A massive brown dwarf orbiting the active M dwarf TOI-5375

Context. Massive substellar companions orbiting active low-mass stars are rare. They, however, offer an excellent opportunity to study the main mechanisms involved in the formation and evolution of substellar objects. Aims. We aim to unravel the physical nature of the transit signal observed by the TESS space mission on the active M dwarf TOI-5375. Methods. We analysed the available TESS photometric data as well as high-resolution (R ∼ 115000) HARPS-N spectra. We combined these data to characterise the star TOI-5375 and to disentangle signals related to stellar activity from the companion transit signal in the light-curve data. We ran an MCMC analysis to derive the orbital solution and apply state-of-the-art Gaussian process regression to deal with the stellar activity signal. Results. We reveal the presence of a companion in the brown dwarf / very-low-mass star boundary orbiting around the star TOI-5375. The best-fit model corresponds to a companion with an orbital period of 1.721564 ± 10−6 d, a mass of 77 ± 8 MJ and a radius of 0.99 ± 0.16 RJ. We derive a rotation period for the host star of 1.9692 ± 0.0004 d, and we conclude that the star is very close to synchronising its rotation with the orbital period of the companion.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2304.04477

Offline matthewkantar

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Amazing to think of 80 Jupiter masses stuffed into one Jupiter diameter whipping around a star three and a half times a week.

Offline Star One

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Amazing to think of 80 Jupiter masses stuffed into one Jupiter diameter whipping around a star three and a half times a week.
It is on the verge of being a Red Dwarf I would have thought.

Offline Star One

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NASA TESS all-sky mosaic and more created with 5 years of imagery:


Offline Greg Hullender

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Amazing to think of 80 Jupiter masses stuffed into one Jupiter diameter whipping around a star three and a half times a week.
It is on the verge of being a Red Dwarf I would have thought.
I just read the paper and, yeah, it's right on the cusp of being a star. Given the right chemistry, it's thought that you can have stars this light, but, given the radius, obviously this one didn't ignite.

Offline deadman1204

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Amazing to think of 80 Jupiter masses stuffed into one Jupiter diameter whipping around a star three and a half times a week.
It is on the verge of being a Red Dwarf I would have thought.
Thats just edging into the range of "brown dwarfs" -  Y or T class stars.
M dwarfs are much larger than 80-100 jupiter masses.

Offline Star One

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Quote
An international team of astronomers reports the detection of a new "super-Earth" exoplanet using NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The newfound alien world, designated TOI-244 b, turns out to have an unusually low density. The finding was reported in a paper published May 8 on the arXiv preprint server.

https://phys.org/news/2023-05-astronomers-unusually-low-density-super-earth.html

Related paper:

https://arxiv.org/abs/2305.04922

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