Author Topic: SOFIA updates  (Read 22750 times)

Online Chris Bergin

SOFIA updates
« on: 06/15/2006 08:10 PM »
The world's largest airborne astronomical observatory has passed a
technical and programmatic review that could potentially lead to the
continuation of the mission.

NASA's Program Management Council concluded that there were no
insurmountable technical or programmatic challenges to the continued
development of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy
(SOFIA). The agency has developed a technically viable plan to
proceed with the development of the SOFIA aircraft, subject to the
identification of appropriate funding offsets.

Earlier this year, the decision had been made to discontinue funding
in fiscal year 2007 as a result of technical, programmatic, and
budget challenges affecting the program. The NASA Program Management
Council is chaired by NASA Associate Administrator Rex Geveden and
comprised of NASA headquarters and center senior management.

"We placed the program on hold last February because of programmatic
and technical issues," said Geveden. "Since that time, we have
thoroughly reviewed the program and now are confident that SOFIA can
resolve those issues. However, it is not yet clear whether SOFIA
represents the best investment of space science funding, and we will
need to consider funding options and sources before we decide to
continue the mission."

SOFIA has been under development since 1996 as an airborne
astronomical observatory consisting of a 2.5-meter aperture telescope
permanently installed in a specially-modified Boeing 747 aircraft.
The aircraft, fitted with an open-port telescope provided through a
partnership with the German Aerospace Center, will provide routine
access to space observations in several parts of the spectrum beyond
what is visible to the eye.

For information about NASA and agency programs, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/home

Offline bolun

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #1 on: 12/03/2010 06:47 PM »
First scientific flight for the SOFIA airborne observatory

1 December 2010

The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR), has commenced scientific operations. SOFIA took off on its first scientific observation flight on 30 November 2010 at 19:34 hrs local time, from the NASA Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility in Palmdale, California. The subject of the night-time observations was the constellation of Orion, with its numerous, interesting star forming regions. The water vapour in Earth's atmosphere does not allow infrared light to pass through, making these observations carried out with SOFIA impossible from the ground.

http://www.dlr.de/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-1/117_read-28014/

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/SOFIA/
« Last Edit: 12/03/2010 07:02 PM by bolun »

Offline Robotbeat

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #2 on: 12/03/2010 09:00 PM »
I can't help but think of this when I see pictures of SOFIA:
Chris  Whoever loves correction loves knowledge, but he who hates reproof is stupid.

To the maximum extent practicable, the Federal Government shall plan missions to accommodate the space transportation services capabilities of United States commercial providers. US law http://goo.gl/YZYNt0

Offline bolun

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #3 on: 04/07/2011 04:31 PM »
German instrument GREAT begins its scientific observations on board SOFIA

7 April 2011

On 6 April 2011, German scientists carried out their first astronomical observations on board the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA. A joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR), SOFIA is the world's only operational airborne observatory.

http://www.dlr.de/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-1/86_read-30074/

Offline Robotbeat

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #4 on: 04/07/2011 04:48 PM »
Cool!
Das ist hervorragend.
Chris  Whoever loves correction loves knowledge, but he who hates reproof is stupid.

To the maximum extent practicable, the Federal Government shall plan missions to accommodate the space transportation services capabilities of United States commercial providers. US law http://goo.gl/YZYNt0

Online jacqmans

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #5 on: 04/17/2012 09:38 PM »
RELEASE: 12-114

NASA SELECTS SCIENCE INSTRUMENT UPGRADE FOR FLYING OBSERVATORY

WASHINGTON -- NASA has selected a science instrument upgrade to the
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne
observatory. The instrument, the High-resolution Airborne Wideband
Camera (HAWC), will provide a sensitive, versatile and reliable
imaging capability to the SOFIA user community. The upgrade involves
two proposals that will allow the observatory to measure the
structure and strength of magnetic fields in diverse objects
throughout the universe, such as star-forming clouds and galaxies.
This will help astronomers better understand how stars, planets and
galaxies form and evolve.

SOFIA is a highly modified Boeing 747SP aircraft that carries a
telescope with a 100-inch (2.5-meter) diameter reflecting mirror that
conducts astronomy research not possible with ground-based
telescopes. By operating in the stratosphere at altitudes up to
45,000 feet, SOFIA can make observations above the water vapor in
Earth's lower atmosphere.

"SOFIA has the ability to become a world-class airborne observatory
that complements the Hubble, Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes,"
said John Grunsfeld, NASA's Science Mission Directorate associate
administrator. "This upgrade will greatly broaden SOFIA's
capabilities."

Last August, the agency released an Announcement of Opportunity for
SOFIA second-generation instrument investigations and received 11
proposals. The selected proposals were judged to have the best
science value and feasible development plans.

The selected proposals are:

-- The High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera Polarization
(HAWC-Pol), Charles Dowell, principal investigator, NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. This investigation upgrades
the HAWC instrument to include the capability to make polarimetric
observations at far-infrared wavelengths. The investigation's main
goals are to measure the magnetic field in the interstellar medium,
star forming regions and the center of the Milky Way.

-- HAWC++, Johannes Staguhn, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. This
investigation will provide a sensitive, large-format detector array
to the HAWC-Pol investigation, increasing its observing efficiency
and providing a broader range of targets.

SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center and
is based and managed at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility in
Palmdale, Calif. NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field,
Calif., manages the SOFIA science and mission operations in
cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association,
headquartered in Columbia, Md., and the German SOFIA Institute at the
University of Stuttgart.

For more information about the SOFIA program, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/sofia

       
-end-

Online jacqmans

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #6 on: 04/19/2012 09:12 PM »
RELEASE: 12-122

NASA'S SOFIA FEATURED IN THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SPECIAL EDITION

MOFFETT FIELD, Calif. -- The Astrophysical Journal, a leading
professional astronomy research publication, will issue a special
edition of its Letters volume on April 20 with papers about
observations made with NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared
Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne telescope.

SOFIA is a highly modified Boeing 747SP aircraft that carries a
telescope with a 100-inch (2.5-meter) diameter reflecting mirror that
conducts astronomy research not possible with ground-based
telescopes. By operating in the stratosphere at altitudes up to
45,000 feet, SOFIA can make observations above the water vapor in
Earth's lower atmosphere.

"This is really SOFIA's debut on the world scientific stage," said
Chris Davis, SOFIA program scientist at NASA Headquarters in
Washington. "World-class observatories such as the Hubble, Chandra
and Spitzer space telescopes had their Astrophysical Journal special
editions, and now SOFIA joins their prestigious ranks."

The eight SOFIA papers featured in the special edition cover diverse
research on topics including SOFIA's capabilities as a flying
observatory and its study of star formation in our galaxy and beyond.


"Studies of star and planet formation processes are one of SOFIA's
'sweet spots,'" said SOFIA Science Mission Director Erick Young.
"SOFIA's infrared instruments can see into the dense clouds where
stars and planets are forming and detect heat radiation from their
construction material. By getting above the Earth's atmospheric water
vapor layer that blocks most of the infrared band, SOFIA's telescope
can view the glow from forming stars at their strongest emission
wavelengths."

The infrared images analyzed in these papers were obtained with the
FORCAST (Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope)
instrument during SOFIA's first science observations in December
2010. Papers based on observations with SOFIA and the GREAT
spectrometer (German Receiver for Astronomy at THz Frequencies) will
be published in a May 2012 special volume of the European journal
Astronomy and Astrophysics.

SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center and
is based and managed at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility in
Palmdale, Calif. NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field,
Calif., manages the SOFIA science and mission operations in
cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association,
headquartered in Columbia, Md., and the German SOFIA Institute at the
University of Stuttgart.

For more information about SOFIA, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/sofia

or
www.sofia.usra.edu

To view The Astrophysical Journal Letters containing the SOFIA papers,
visit:

http://iopscience.iop.org/2041-8205/749/2

       

Offline catdlr

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #7 on: 01/02/2013 06:09 PM »
SOFIA Gets Avionics and Mission Control Systems Upgrades

Published on Jan 2, 2013
DrydenTV
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/home/index.html

NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, has received major upgrades to its telescope control and avionics systems that will significantly improve their efficiency and operability. The upgrades enhance the pointing and tracking capabilities of the observatory's telescope control system, while the avionics upgrades allow the SOFIA to comply with current airspace regulations.

« Last Edit: 01/02/2013 06:09 PM by catdlr »
Tony De La Rosa

Offline catdlr

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #8 on: 03/25/2013 11:03 PM »
SOFIA Observatory Conducts Night Checkout Flight

Published on Mar 25, 2013
NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy flew a nighttime checkout flight over northern and central California the first week of March 2013 to conduct verification and validation of aircraft and telescope systems in preparation for instrument commissioning and the Cycle 1 astronomy flights scheduled for spring 2013.

Tony De La Rosa

Offline catdlr

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #9 on: 04/16/2013 11:56 PM »
April 16, 2013

RELEASE: 13-099

SOFIA OBSERVATIONS REVEAL A SURPRISE IN MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

WASHINGTON -- Researchers using the airborne Stratospheric Observatory
for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) have captured the most detailed
mid-infrared images yet of a massive star condensing within a dense
cocoon of dust and gas.

The star is G35.20-0.74, commonly known as G35. It is one of the most
massive known protostars and is located relatively close to Earth at
a distance of 8,000 light-years.

Until now, scientists expected the formation process of massive stars
would be complicated by the turbulent, chaotic environments in the
centers of new star clusters where they form. But observations of G35
suggest this giant star, more than 20 times the mass of our sun, is
forming by the same orderly process as do stars with the same mass as
the sun. Stars most like the sun are understood to form by simple,
symmetric collapse of interstellar clouds.

"The focus of our study has been to determine how massive stars
actually form," said Yichen Zhang of the University of Florida. Zhang
is lead author of a paper about the discovery published April 10 in
the Astrophysical Journal. "We thought the G35 protostar's structure
would be quite complicated, but instead we found it is simple, like
the cocoons of protostars with the sun's mass."

The observations of G35 were made in 2011 with a special camera aboard
SOFIA, a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft that can carry a telescope
with an effective diameter of 100 inches (2.5 meters) to altitudes as
high as 45,000 feet (13,700 meters).

G35 was an ideal target for investigations because it is in an early
stage of development. But infrared light coming from G35 is so strong
it prevented infrared space telescopes from making detailed images.
Also, the protostar is embedded so deeply in its natal cloud that it
cannot be detected by optical telescopes observing from the ground at
visible wavelengths.

Flying high above the light-blocking water vapor in Earth's
atmosphere, the airplane-mounted Faint Object Infrared Camera for the
SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) enabled astronomers to see G35 where it
hides -- inside a dark, dense, interstellar dust cloud -- by
collecting infrared light escaping the cloud. Uniquely suited for
this work, FORCAST detected faint details next to bright structures
at wavelengths inaccessible to any other telescope on the ground or
in space.

"Massive stars, although rare, are important because there is evidence
they foster the formation of smaller stars like our sun, and because
at the ends of their lives they create and distribute chemical
elements that are the basic building blocks of Earth-like planets,"
said co-author James De Buizer, a SOFIA staff scientist with the
Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at NASA's Ames
Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif.

Images of G35 may be viewed on NASA's SOFIA site:

http://www.nasa.gov/sofia

Figures 1a and 1b show FORCAST images of G35 at wavelengths of 31 and
37 microns. Figures 2a and 2b respectively present G35 images
obtained by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the Gemini-North
telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, also used in this study. Figure 3
shows computer model images intended to match characteristics of the
central regions of the images in figures 1a and 1b.

The model images show greatly simplified versions of what is revealed
especially in the SOFIA images: a luminous protostar heating a dense
interstellar cloud from the inside while simultaneously expelling
cone-shaped jets of gas toward the tops and bottoms of the frames.
The top outflow cone appears brighter because it is directed toward
us and there is less obscuring material along the line of sight.

The high resolution of the images showcases the capability of modern
infrared detector arrays when used on an airborne platform and gives
scientists hope that data gathered in this way substantially will
advance their understanding of the Milky Way galaxy.

FORCAST was built by a team led by Terry Herter of Cornell University
in Ithica, N.Y. Co-authors of the Astrophysics Journal paper include
scientists from the University of Florida in Gainesville; University
of Wisconsin in Madison; University of California at Berkeley;
Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge; the Arcetri Observatory in
Florence, Italy; and the USRA SOFIA science staff at Ames.

SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.
SOFIA is based and managed at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations
Facility in Palmdale, Calif. NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett
Field, Calif., manages the SOFIA science and mission operations in
cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association (USRA)
headquartered in Columbia, Md., and the German SOFIA Institute at the
University of Stuttgart.

For links to USRA and the German SOFIA Institute, visit NASA's SOFIA
site and click on "SOFIA Science Center."

   
-end-
Tony De La Rosa

Offline bolun

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #10 on: 03/07/2014 04:17 PM »
BUDGET 2015: Flying SOFIA Telescope To Be Shelved For ‘Higher-Priority’ Programs Like Cassini

http://www.universetoday.com/110007/budget-2015-flying-sofia-telescope-to-be-shelved-for-higher-priority-programs-like-cassini/

Offline woods170

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #11 on: 03/11/2014 05:58 PM »
From here:

http://www.spacenews.com/article/civil-space/39813nasa-budget-justification-details-delays-descopes-and-cancellations

Quote
NASA’s budget justification expands on the reasons it gave the week of March 4 for canceling the $1.1 billion Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, saying the telescope-equipped jetliner’s “contributions to astronomical science will be significantly less than originally envisioned.”


Offline simonbp

Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #12 on: 03/11/2014 09:17 PM »
The same could quite easily be said for a certain massively overbudget telescope named after a NASA administrator.

Cancelling active programs to cover the overruns of future ones is a rather destructive long-term policy.

Offline Blackstar

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #13 on: 03/11/2014 10:20 PM »
The same could quite easily be said for a certain massively overbudget telescope named after a NASA administrator.


No. There is a massive difference: SOFIA is at the bottom of everybody's priority list. And it actually costs a lot to operate for a telescope that returns relatively little science. JWST, however, is a top priority science instrument. If you put 100 astronomers in a room and asked them which was the more important project, you would get 99 raising their hands for JWST (and 1 guy busy scratching an itch).

Offline Star One

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SOFIA updates
« Reply #14 on: 03/19/2014 05:55 PM »
Quote
PARIS — Germany remains hopeful of persuading NASA to reverse a decision to retire the U.S.-German SOFIA airborne infrared telescope in September as a cost-saving measure even as the plane, after two decades of development, only now enters fully operational status, the head of the German Aerospace Center, DLR, said March 19.

In an interview, Johann-Dietrich Woerner said negotiations with NASA over SOFIA’s future have taken on an additional urgency because the modified Boeing 747 aircraft will require a substantial maintenance check in June.

It makes no sense to perform the maintenance, to occur in Germany, if the SOFIA mission is going to be ended at the end of the U.S. government’s current fiscal year in September, Woerner said.

NASA has informed DLR that, due to budget pressures and the need to perform triage among valuable in-service missions, SOFIA will not receive NASA support after September.

http://www.spacenews.com/article/civil-space/39919germany-hasn’t-given-up-on-persuading-nasa-to-keep-sofia-flying
« Last Edit: 03/19/2014 05:55 PM by Star One »

Offline woods170

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #15 on: 03/28/2014 08:19 PM »
http://www.spacenews.com/article/civil-space/40004house-science-committee-questions-decision-to-cancel-sofia

Quote
Members of the House Science Committee pressed President Obama’s science adviser Wednesday (March 26) for an explanation why the administration’s fiscal year 2015 budget proposal seeks to cancel the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and indicated there was bipartisan interest in keeping the program alive.

Online jacqmans

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #16 on: 04/01/2014 06:04 PM »

April 1, 2014

NASA Begins Search for Potential SOFIA Partners

NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) Monday soliciting potential partners interested in using the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft for scientific investigations or for other potential uses.

NASA's Fiscal Year 2015 budget request to Congress calls for SOFIA to be placed in storage next year unless the agency's contribution to the project can be replaced.

Various partnership levels will be considered. Partnerships can range from joining as a major partner to securing flights on a night-by-night basis. Costs are estimated at approximately $1 million per night for a dedicated mission. Due to the current budget situation, partnership arrangements would be initiated immediately in order to be in place prior to Oct. 1. Potential partners are invited to submit their interest or questions in writing as soon as possible, but prior to May 1.

The RFI is available at:

http://go.nasa.gov/1jvKupw

 

The SOFIA team will conduct an Industry Day April 11 at NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center Bldg. 703 in Palmdale, Calif., to provide detailed information to potential partners and the media. Representatives can meet with the SOFIA program staff and take a tour of the aircraft. A number of briefings will be given on SOFIA's science program, the aircraft, its operational and life-cycle costs, as well as potential partnership mechanisms.

Parties interested in participating in the SOFIA Industry Day are requested to make reservations by contacting Beth Hagenauer at 661-276-7960 or beth.hagenauer-1@nasa.gov by noon PDT on April 9 to reserve a space and learn of security requirements.

SOFIA is the world's largest airborne astronomical observatory, complementing NASA's space telescopes, as well as major Earth-based telescopes. It features a German-built far-infrared telescope with an effective diameter of 100-inches (2.5 meters). The telescope weighs 19 tons (38,000 lb.) and is mounted in the rear fuselage of a highly modified Boeing 747SP aircraft.

Flying at altitudes of between 39,000 to 45,000 feet (12 – 14 kilometers) and above 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere, SOFIA facilitates observations that are unobtainable from telescopes on the ground. Because SOFIA can fly virtually anywhere in the world, change instruments between flights, and implement new capabilities, it provides greater adaptability than any space-based telescope.

SOFIA is a joint program of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt). The program is managed and the aircraft is based at Armstrong Flight Research Center. NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., manages SOFIA science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association in Columbia, Md., and the Deutsches SOFIA Institute in Stuttgart, Germany.

This is not a request for proposal or formal procurement and therefore is not a solicitation. This notice is not to be construed as a commitment by the government to issue an invitation for bid, request for proposal, request for quote, or contract.

For more information about NASA's SOFIA aircraft, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/sofia

Offline woods170

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Offline rusty

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #18 on: 04/03/2014 08:37 AM »
And as reported: http://www.spacenews.com/article/civil-space/40071nasa-open-to-renting-sofia-for-1-million-a-night
Sounds like Indecent Proposal. Who'll be Robert Redford? "NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) Monday soliciting potential partners" - NASA.gov "Potential partners are invited to submit their interest or questions in writing as soon as possible, but prior to May 1." - SpaceNews
« Last Edit: 04/03/2014 08:41 AM by rusty »

Online jacqmans

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Re: SOFIA updates
« Reply #19 on: 05/13/2014 09:57 PM »
Press release, 13 May 2014


Tracing the birth of stars in the Orion Nebula with FIFI-LS - New infrared spectrometer from Germany on SOFIA, the airborne observatory

Full article with images:
http://www.dlr.de/dlr/presse/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10172/213_read-10227/year-all/#gallery/14633

During its first scientific flight, the new infrared spectrometer FIFI-LS (Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer) investigated the birth of young stars
 in the Orion Nebula and nine other celestial regions. The instrument, carried on board the airborne observatory SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared
 Astronomy) operated by the US space agency NASA and the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR), gathered important data on
 the formation of stars while simultaneously proving its suitability for this type of mission. This means that a second German instrument has successfully entered
 its operational phase on board SOFIA, in addition to the far-infrared spectrometer GREAT.

For stars to form, molecular clouds must cool

The Orion Nebula is located in the Milky Way at a distance of roughly 1300 light years from Earth. This celestial region is particularly interesting to science
 because it is one of the galaxy's most active star forming regions. The scientists used FIFI-LS specifically to analyse the Becklin Neugebauer Object – a stellar
 nursery containing both young stars and dense gas in which new stars are being created. For this to happen, the hot gas in the region must cool from an initial
 temperature of around 100 Kelvin (-173 degrees Celsius) to roughly 10 Kelvin (-263 degrees Celsius) – only then does the pressure within the cloud drop sufficiently
 to allow condensation to occur and stars to form.

Elements such as oxygen and carbon promote this cooling by radiating heat from inside the cloud to the exterior. Leslie Looney, the project's senior scientist
 from the University of Illinois, wants to find out, in detail, how this process works: "At very specific far-infrared wavelengths, oxygen and carbon radiate
 a substantial portion of the thermal energy found in the cloud, and FIFI-LS is perfectly equipped to detect this." SOFIA is currently the only observatory that
 enables investigations at these far-infrared wavelengths.

In addition, FIFI-LS observed nine other infrared objects, including the centre of the Milky Way, during the three scientific flights held on 21, 23 and 25 April
 2014. "With FIFI-LS, one of the most modern far-infrared spectrometers is now fitted on board SOFIA," says Alois Himmes, SOFIA Project Manager at DLR. "Together
 with GREAT and four other NASA spectrometers and cameras, the scientists currently have six instruments with which they can study the infrared skies."

FIFI-LS was delivered to Palmdale, California, the home base of the SOFIA airborne observatory, back in November 2013, where it was prepared for its first mission.
 Two successful test flights were held at the beginning of March and mid-April 2014, during which scientists, engineers and technicians put the spectrometer's
 functionality and performance through an extensive series of tests.

FIFI-LS was initially developed and built at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, near Munich, and from 2012 the Institute
 of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart under the direction of Alfred Krabbe. The Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI), based at the University of Stuttgart,
 coordinates the airborne observatory's German operations.

SOFIA

SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a joint project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the US National Aeronautics and Space
 Administration (NASA). The German component of the SOFIA programme is being carried out under the auspices of DLR with funds from the Federal Ministry of Economic
 Affairs and Energy, the State of Baden-Württemberg and the University of Stuttgart. The development of the German instruments is funded by the Max Planck Society
 (MPG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and DLR. Scientific operations are coordinated on the German side by the German SOFIA Institute (DSI) at the University
 of Stuttgart, and on the American side of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA).

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