Author Topic: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates  (Read 61196 times)

Offline bolun

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #120 on: 10/21/2013 08:56 PM »

Offline bolun

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Offline jacqmans

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #122 on: 10/23/2013 04:53 PM »
Paris, 23 October 2013   
   
Last command sent to ESA’s Planck space telescope   
   
ESA’s Planck space telescope has been turned off after nearly 4.5 years soaking up the relic radiation from the Big Bang and studying the evolution of stars and galaxies throughout the Universe’s history.
   
   
Mission controllers at ESA’s operations centre in Darmstadt, Germany sent the final command to the Planck satellite this afternoon marking the end of operations for ESA’s ‘time machine’.     
   
Launched in 2009, Planck was designed to tease out the faintest relic radiation from the Big Bang – the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The CMB preserves a picture of the Universe as it was about 380
000 years after the Big Bang, and provides details of the initial conditions that led to the Universe we live in today.     
   
 “Planck has provided us with more insight into the evolution of the Universe than any mission has before,” says Alvaro Giménez, ESA’s Director of Science and Robotic Exploration.     
   
“Planck’s picture of the CMB is the most accurate ‘baby photo’ of the Universe yet, but the wealth of data still being scrutinised by our cosmologists will provide us with even more details.”   
   
The mission began drawing to a close in August, when the satellite was nudged away from its operational orbit around the Sun–Earth ‘L2’ point towards a more distant long-term stable parking orbit around
the Sun.   
   
In the last weeks, the spacecraft has been prepared for permanent hibernation, with the closing activities using up all of the remaining fuel and finally switching off the transmitter.   
   
“It is with much sadness that we have carried out the final operations on the Planck spacecraft, but it is also a time to celebrate an extraordinarily successful mission,” says Steve Foley, the Planck Spacecraft
Operations Manager at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC).   
   
“Planck was a sophisticated spacecraft flying a complex mission, but with tight teamwork from the mission controllers, flight dynamics specialists, ground stations and our industrial partners, Europe received
excellent scientific value for its investment,” adds Paolo Ferri, Head of Mission Operations.     
   
ESA member states provided key technologies such as the innovative cooler that allowed the mission’s instrumentation to be maintained at just one-tenth of a degree above the coldest temperature reachable
in the Universe, –273.15°C, so that the spacecraft’s own heat did not swamp the signal from the sky. This enabled temperature variations of just a few millionths of a degree to be distinguished in the CMB.
   
   
But cooling instruments to these extreme temperatures cannot be maintained forever and, indeed, the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) exhausted its liquid helium coolant in January 2012, just as expected.
   
   
The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) meanwhile was able to operate at somewhat higher temperatures using the remaining two coolers and continued making observations until 3 October. After conducting post-science
activities, it was manually switched off on 19 October.     
   
The mission’s original target was to complete two whole surveys of the sky but, in the end, Planck completed five full-sky surveys with both instruments. Moreover, by mid-August, LFI had completed its eighth
survey of the entire sky.   
   
“Planck continued using LFI right up until last week, exceeding all expectations and providing us with bountiful data to work with in the future,” says Jan Tauber, ESA’s Planck project scientist.   
The first detailed image of the faint signal from the CMB from Planck was released earlier this year, after foreground emission from our own Milky Way Galaxy as well as all other galaxies had been removed.
These latter data resulted in a new catalogue of objects, including many never-before-seen galaxy clusters in the distant Universe.     
   
The 2013 data release provided revised values for the relative proportions of the ingredients of the Universe, namely normal matter that makes up stars and galaxies, dark matter, which has thus far only
been detected indirectly by its gravitational influence, and dark energy, a mysterious force thought to be responsible for accelerating the expansion of the Universe.   
   
“Planck has given us a fresh look at the matter that makes up our Universe and how it evolved, but we are still working hard to further constrain our understanding of how the Universe expanded from the
infinitely small to the extraordinarily large, details which we hope to share next year,” says Dr Tauber.     
   
More information   
For more on Planck’s science highlights, see our article published on 18 October: Celebrating the legacy of ESA’s Planck mission.   
   
About Planck   
Launched in 2009, Planck was designed to map the sky in nine frequencies using two state-of-the-art instruments: the Low Frequency Instrument, which includes the frequency bands 30–70 GHz, and the High
Frequency Instrument, which includes the frequency bands 100–857 GHz. HFI completed its survey in January 2012, while LFI continued to make science observations until 3 October 2013, before being switched
off on 19 October.   
   
Planck’s first all-sky image was released in 2010 and the first scientific data were released in 2011. The first image of the CMB was released in March 2013. The next set of cosmology data will be released
in 2014.   
   
The Planck Scientific Collaboration consists of all the scientists who have contributed to the development of the mission, and who participate in the scientific exploitation of the data during the proprietary
period. These scientists are members of one or more of four consortia: the LFI Consortium, the HFI Consortium, the DK-Planck Consortium, and ESA’s Planck Science Office. The two European-led Planck Data
Processing Centres are located in Paris, France and Trieste, Italy.   
   
The LFI consortium is led by N. Mandolesi, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI, Italy (deputy PI: M. Bersanelli, Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Italy), and was responsible for the development and operation
of LFI. The HFI consortium is led by J.L. Puget, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France (deputy PI: F. Bouchet, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, France), and was responsible for the development
and operation of HFI.   

Online eeergo

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #123 on: 10/23/2013 05:06 PM »
Planck has been taken out of its L2 orbit and into a heliocentric graveyard orbit, its propulsion systems have been passivated, depleting its hydrazine, and the final command to switch off all of its remaining systems, including the transmitter, has been executed.

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Planck/Last_command_sent_to_ESA_s_Planck_space_telescope

Farewell, but remember the data it collected will continue to be analyzed for many years to come! The next, very expected result is the B-component (magnetic) of the CMB polarization, expected for next year, which will provide much-anticipated data on dark matter distribution, inflation, gravity waves and CMB parameters and perturbations.

As a tribute, some selected slides from a very nice presentation from Dr M. Tomasi (INA, Milan) that I had the opportunity to attend last month.
-DaviD-

Offline catdlr

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #124 on: 01/22/2014 08:21 PM »
Jan. 22, 2014
RELEASE 14-021

Herschel Telescope Detects Water on Dwarf Planet


Scientists using the Herschel space observatory have made the first definitive detection of water vapor on the largest and roundest object in the asteroid belt, Ceres.

Plumes of water vapor are thought to shoot up periodically from Ceres when portions of its icy surface warm slightly. Ceres is classified as a dwarf planet, a solar system body bigger than an asteroid and smaller than a planet.
Herschel is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission with important NASA contributions.

"This is the first time water vapor has been unequivocally detected on Ceres or any other object in the asteroid belt and provides proof that Ceres has an icy surface and an atmosphere," said Michael Küppers of ESA in Spain, lead author of a paper in the journal Nature.

The results come at the right time for NASA's Dawn mission, which is on its way to Ceres now after spending more than a year orbiting the large asteroid Vesta. Dawn is scheduled to arrive at Ceres in the spring of 2015, where it will take the closest look ever at its surface.

"We've got a spacecraft on the way to Ceres, so we don't have to wait long before getting more context on this intriguing result, right from the source itself," said Carol Raymond, the deputy principal investigator for Dawn at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. "Dawn will map the geology and chemistry of the surface in high-resolution, revealing the processes that drive the outgassing activity."

For the last century, Ceres was known as the largest asteroid in our solar system. But in 2006, the International Astronomical Union, the governing organization responsible for naming planetary objects, reclassified Ceres as a dwarf planet because of its large size. It is roughly 590 miles (950 kilometers) in diameter. When it first was spotted in 1801, astronomers thought it was a planet orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. Later, other cosmic bodies with similar orbits were found, marking the discovery of our solar system's main belt of asteroids.
Scientists believe Ceres contains rock in its interior with a thick mantle of ice that, if melted, would amount to more fresh water than is present on all of Earth. The materials making up Ceres likely date from the first few million years of our solar system's existence and accumulated before the planets formed.

Until now, ice had been theorized to exist on Ceres but had not been detected conclusively. It took Herschel's far-infrared vision to see, finally, a clear spectral signature of the water vapor. But Herschel did not see water vapor every time it looked. While the telescope spied water vapor four different times, on one occasion there was no signature.

Here is what scientists think is happening: when Ceres swings through the part of its orbit that is closer to the sun, a portion of its icy surface becomes warm enough to cause water vapor to escape in plumes at a rate of about 6 kilograms (13 pounds) per second. When Ceres is in the colder part of its orbit, no water escapes.

The strength of the signal also varied over hours, weeks and months, because of the water vapor plumes rotating in and out of Herschel's views as the object spun on its axis. This enabled the scientists to localize the source of water to two darker spots on the surface of Ceres, previously seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes. The dark spots might be more likely to outgas because dark material warms faster than light material. When the Dawn spacecraft arrives at Ceres, it will be able to investigate these features.

The results are somewhat unexpected because comets, the icier cousins of asteroids, are known typically to sprout jets and plumes, while objects in the asteroid belt are not.

"The lines are becoming more and more blurred between comets and asteroids," said Seungwon Lee of JPL, who helped with the water vapor models along with Paul von Allmen, also of JPL. "We knew before about main belt asteroids that show comet-like activity, but this is the first detection of water vapor in an asteroid-like object."

The research is part of the Measurements of 11 Asteroids and Comets Using Herschel (MACH-11) program, which used Herschel to look at small bodies that have been or will be visited by spacecraft, including the targets of NASA's previous Deep Impact mission and upcoming Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-Rex). Laurence O' Rourke of the European Space Agency is the principal investigator of the MACH-11 program.
 
More information about Herschel is online at:
http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Herschel
More information about NASA's role in Herschel is available at:
http://www.nasa.gov/herschel
For more information about NASA's Dawn mission, visit:
http://www.nasa.gov/dawn
-end-

 

Dwarf planet Ceres is located in the main asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, as illustrated in this artist's conception. Observations by the Herschel space observatory between 2011 and 2013 find that the dwarf planet has a thin water vapor atmosphere.
Image Credit: ESA/ATG medialab
Tony De La Rosa

Offline bolun

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #125 on: 03/19/2014 11:24 AM »
Herschel completes largest survey of cosmic dust in local Universe

18 March 2014

The largest census of dust in local galaxies has been completed using data from ESA’s Herschel space observatory, providing a huge legacy to the scientific community.

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Herschel/Herschel_completes_largest_survey_of_cosmic_dust_in_local_Universe

Image credit: ESA/Herschel/HRS-SAG2 and HeViCS Key Programmes/Sloan Digital Sky Survey/ L. Cortese (Swinburne University)

Offline bolun

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #126 on: 04/04/2015 06:02 PM »
Herschel and Planck find missing clue to galaxy cluster formation

31 March 2015

By combining observations of the distant Universe made with ESA's Herschel and Planck space observatories, cosmologists have discovered what could be the precursors of the vast clusters of galaxies that we see today.

http://sci.esa.int/planck/55713-herschel-and-planck-find-missing-clue-to-galaxy-cluster-formation/

Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration/ H. Dole, D. Guéry & G. Hurier, IAS/University Paris-Sud/CNRS/CNES

Offline bolun

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #127 on: 07/10/2015 08:03 PM »
New tool for Astronomers – Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources Released

09 July 2015

ESA's Planck mission is the source for a new catalogue, eagerly awaited by the scientific community, and available online from today. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources uses data from the entire mission to identify tens of thousands of compact sources, as well as providing polarisation data for several hundred of them. The new catalogue surpasses its predecessors not only in the quantity of sources but also in the quality of data. It will be an asset to astronomers working in a wide range of fields.

http://sci.esa.int/planck/56087-new-tool-for-astronomers-second-planck-catalogue-of-compact-sources-released/

Credits: ESA and the Planck Collaboration
« Last Edit: 07/10/2015 08:04 PM by bolun »

Offline bolun

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #128 on: 08/19/2015 08:36 AM »
Planck Legacy Archive: 2015 data delivery is complete

10 August 2015

ESA's Planck mission has achieved a significant milestone. The 2015 data delivery to the Planck Legacy Archive, which hosts the mission products, is now complete. The new version of the archive comprises a full record of the data and results from the mission.

http://sci.esa.int/planck/56288-planck-legacy-archive-is-complete/

Credits: ESA and the Planck Collaboration

Offline Star One

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ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #129 on: 11/01/2015 07:39 PM »
Read this article in the current issue of New Scientist and it is taken from an analysis of Planck data.

Mystery bright spots could be first glimpse of another universe

Quote
THE curtain at the edge of the universe may be rippling, hinting that there’s more backstage. Data from the European Space Agency’s Planck telescope could be giving us our first glimpse of another universe, with different physics, bumping up against our own.

That’s the tentative conclusion of an analysis by Ranga-Ram Chary, a researcher at Planck’s US data centre in California. Armed with Planck’s painstaking map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – light lingering from the hot, soupy state of the early universe – Chary revealed an eerie glow that could be due to matter from a neighbouring universe leaking into ours.

This sort of collision should be possible, according to modern cosmological theories that suggest the universe we see is just one bubble among many. Such a multiverse may be a consequence of cosmic inflation, the widely accepted idea that the early universe expanded exponentially in the slimmest fraction of a second after the big bang.

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mystery-bright-spots-could-be-first-glimpse-of-another-universe/
« Last Edit: 11/01/2015 07:44 PM by Star One »

Offline jgoldader

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #130 on: 11/01/2015 11:46 PM »
The money quotes in the article come from Spergel and Silk.  Claiming (possible) discovery of another universe requires rather more evidence...  Good grief, I hate "science by press release."
Recovering astronomer

Offline Star One

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #131 on: 11/02/2015 06:20 AM »

The money quotes in the article come from Spergel and Silk.  Claiming (possible) discovery of another universe requires rather more evidence...  Good grief, I hate "science by press release."

Well the author of this paper himself states it requires more observations, especially with the ever present issue of dust which already did for the claimed discovery of primordial gravity waves.

Offline bolun

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Re: ESA - Herschel and Planck updates
« Reply #132 on: 06/25/2017 08:34 PM »
New catalogues for Herschel legacy archive

20 June 2017

Two new catalogues, based on data from ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, have been released to the scientific community. The point source catalogues are examples of a new type of data product from two of Herschel's instruments, SPIRE and PACS. These catalogues are part of the lasting legacy of the Herschel mission, and will further facilitate data exploitation and drive ongoing research.

http://sci.esa.int/herschel/59222-new-catalogues-for-herschel-legacy-archive/

Credits: ESA/NASA/Herschel/SPIRE and ESA/Herschel/PACS

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