Author Topic: The Apollo Digest Videos  (Read 1556 times)

Online catdlr

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The Apollo Digest Videos
« on: 12/24/2016 08:37 PM »
Apollo Spacecraft: "The Command Module" ~ 1967 NASA; Apollo Digest CM Systems Overview

Jeff Quitney

Published on Dec 24, 2016

Overview of the Apollo spacecraft Command Module.

From the NASA film series "Apollo Digest".

The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of two spacecraft, along with the Lunar Module, used for the United States Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon. It was built for NASA by North American Aviation. It was launched by itself on three suborbital and low Earth orbit Apollo test missions using the Saturn IB launch vehicle. It was also launched twelve times on the larger Saturn V launch vehicle, both by itself and with the Lunar Module. It made a total of nine manned flights to the Moon aboard the Saturn V.

After the Apollo lunar program, the CSM saw manned service as a crew shuttle for the Skylab program, and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in which an American crew rendezvoused and docked with a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit.

The CSM consisted of two segments: the Command Module, a cabin that housed a crew of three and equipment needed for re-entry and splashdown; and a Service Module that provided propulsion, electrical power and storage for various consumables required during a mission. The Service Module was cast off and allowed to burn up in the atmosphere before the Command Module re-entered and brought the crew home.

The CSM was initially designed to return all three astronauts from the lunar surface on a direct-descent mission which would not use a separate Lunar Module, and thus had no provisions for docking with another spacecraft. This, plus other required design changes led to the decision to design two versions of the CSM: Block I was to be used for unmanned missions and a single manned Earth orbit flight (Apollo 1), while the more advanced Block II was designed for use with the Lunar Module. The Apollo 1 flight was cancelled after a cabin fire killed the entire crew and destroyed the Command Module during a launch rehearsal test. Corrections of the problems which caused the fire were applied to the Block II spacecraft, which was used for all manned missions...

The Command Module was a truncated cone (frustum) 10 feet 7 inches (3.23 m) tall with a diameter of 12 feet 10 inches (3.91 m) across the base. The forward compartment contained two reaction control engines, the docking tunnel, and the components of the Earth Landing System. The inner pressure vessel housed the crew accommodations, equipment bays, controls and displays, and many spacecraft systems. The last section, the aft compartment, contained 10 reaction control engines and their related propellant tanks, fresh water tanks, and the CSM umbilical cables...

Reaction Control System

The Command Module attitude control system consisted of twelve 93-pound-force (410 N) attitude control jets; ten were located in the aft compartment, and two pitch motors in the forward compartment. Four tanks stored 270 pounds (120 kg) of mono-methyl hydrazine fuel and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer. They were pressurized by 1.1 pounds (0.50 kg) of helium stored at 4,150 pounds per square inch (28.6 MPa) in two tanks.

Hatches

The forward docking hatch was mounted at the top of the docking tunnel. It was 30 inches (76 cm) in diameter and weighed 80 pounds (36 kg). It was constructed from two machined rings that were weld-joined to a brazed honeycomb panel. The exterior side was covered with a 0.5-inch (13 mm) of insulation and a layer of aluminum foil. It was latched in six places and operated by a pump handle. The hatch contained a valve in its center, used to equalize the pressure between the tunnel and the CM so the hatch could be removed.

The Unified Crew Hatch (UCH) measured 29 inches (74 cm) high, 34 inches (86 cm) wide, and weighed 225 pounds (102 kg). It was operated by a pump handle, which drove a ratchet mechanism to open or close fifteen latches simultaneously...

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Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gviUY2BFhyI?t=001

« Last Edit: 05/09/2017 11:13 PM by catdlr »
Tony De La Rosa

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Re: The Apollo Digest Videos
« Reply #1 on: 05/09/2017 11:15 PM »
Project Apollo Hardware Testing: "Apollo Digest: Testing Apollo" ~ 1966 NASA


Jeff Quitney
Published on May 9, 2017

Overview of engineering development testing of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicles.

From the NASA film series "Apollo Digest".

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972. First conceived during Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration as a three-man spacecraft to follow the one-man Project Mercury which put the first Americans in space, Apollo was later dedicated to President John F. Kennedy's national goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" by the end of the 1960s, which he proposed in an address to Congress on May 25, 1961.

Kennedy's goal was accomplished on the Apollo 11 mission when astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed their Lunar Module (LM) on July 20, 1969, and walked on the lunar surface, while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the Command/Service Module (CSM), and all three landed safely on Earth on July 24. Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon.

Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968. It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the major setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration. Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. Five of the remaining six missions achieved successful landings, but the Apollo 13 landing was prevented by an oxygen tank explosion in transit to the Moon, which damaged the CSM's propulsion and life support. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a "lifeboat" for these functions. Apollo used Saturn family rockets as launch vehicles, which were also used for an Apollo Applications Program, which consisted of Skylab, a space station that supported three manned missions in 1973–74, and the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint Earth orbit mission with the Soviet Union in 1975.

Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit. Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program returned 842 pounds (382 kg) of lunar rocks and soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moon's composition and geological history. The program laid the foundation for NASA's subsequent human spaceflight capability, and funded construction of its Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center. Apollo also spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers...

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Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUrJu42PIkU?t=001

Tony De La Rosa

Online catdlr

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Re: The Apollo Digest Videos
« Reply #2 on: 10/24/2017 10:12 PM »
Project Apollo Mission Plan: "Apollo Mission Highlights" ~ 1966 NASA Apollo Digest

Jeff Quitney
Published on Oct 24, 2017

Overview of a standard flight plan for a typical Apollo program lunar landing mission.

Project Apollo, the American space program to land men on the moon, originated in 1960. On July 28-29, 1960, the Apollo program was announced to US industry representatives. On September 1, The Apollo Project Office was formed under the Space Task Group (STG) Flight Systems Division. In late October, Convair, GE and Martin were selected to prepare feasibility studies for the Apollo spacecraft.

    Numerous committees were formed within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop lunar mission concepts. On February 7, 1961, the final report of the Low Committee (Manned Lunar Landing Task Group) outlined "A Plan for Manned Lunar Landing" within the decade using either Earth Orbit Rendezvous (EOR) or direct ascent technique.

    On May 5, STG completed the first draft of Apollo spacecraft specifications, and on May 22, the 2nd draft was completed. On May 25, President Kennedy proposed a manned lunar landing within the decade to Congress. On June 10, the Lundin Committee recommended the Earth Orbit Rendezvous method using the conceptual Saturn C-3 (S-IB-2 4x F-1; S-II-C3 2x J-2; S-IV 6x RL-10) launch vehicle to accomplish the manned lunar landing mission.

    In August, the Heaton Committee (Ad Hoc Task Group for Study of Manned Lunar Landing by Rendezvous Techniques) recommended Earth Orbit Rendezvous using the conceptual Saturn C-4 (S-IB-4 4x F-1; S-II-4 4x J-2; S-IVB 1x J-2) for the manned lunar landing.

On November 1, 1961, the Space Task Group was renamed as the Manned Spacecraft Center. On November 28, North American Aviation was selected as the principal contractor for the Apollo spacecraft under MSC direction. In December, the configuration of the Saturn C-5 (Saturn-V) launch vehicle was determined. Boeing had been chosen as prime contractor for the first stage, and Douglas Aircraft as prime contractor for the third stage.

    The prime contractor for the 2nd stage was not announced until November 7, 1962: North Amerian Aviation (NAA). This choice was surprising, because NAA had already received the Apollo Command & Service Module contract, and because the Rocketdyne division of NAA was the prime contractor for the F-1 and J-2 engines which would power all three stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle.

    America's first manned orbital flight was accomplished by John Glenn in the Mercury spacecraft Friendship 7 on February 20, 1962. In March, the Apollo Spacecraft Project Office was relocated to the Manned Spacecraft Center near Houston, Texas, and on July 20, NASA announced that the Mission Control Center for Apollo would be located at the Manned Spacecraft Center.

    On July 11, 1962, NASA announced that the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous mode would be used the manned lunar landing mission and that the Saturn C-IB (Saturn IB) launch vehicle would be developed to test the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit missions.

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Originally a public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrlRetJbTjE?t=001

Tony De La Rosa

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