Author Topic: EM Drive Developments - related to space flight applications - Thread 3  (Read 1875938 times)

Offline WarpTech

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... Following this idea, could we imagine an "applied-field EmDrive" with an external belt coil that would produce a more powerful magnetic field inside the cavity, tuned to combine with the E-field (axial B-field in the case of TE modes, and toroidal B-field for TM modes) in order to enhance the Poynting vector in a preferred direction? Or is my idea coming from magnetohydrodynamics a complete nonsense when applied to standing waves in a resonant cavity?

But how would the external field get "inside" the frustum to enhance the B field? The interior is completely shielded all the way around. If the field can't get out, then it can't get in either. I had a similar thought, but I don't think it will work.

I'm working on an alternative that does not require microwaves, can use iron or ferrite to amplify the B field and is not a closed system. I think it will give more thrust than a simple photon rocket, but I have yet to prove it.  :-\
Todd

Offline frobnicat

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Actually the cross-correlation looks interesting, there is a relatively clear max (magnitude) centered around 0. Interestingly this absolute max is found at a lag of 3 frames (is it 3 minutes ?).

I've been thinking more about this, we expect the em drive to produce thrust instantly, if there is a delay that means the thrust producing mechanism is most likely related to heat or another means. 

Because of this lag I'm leaning towards the thrust not being from a novel mechanism.  We'll need more data to be sure.

Not everybody expects the em drive to produce thrust "instantly". On the (hopefully) uncontroversial ground of standing waves alone, the time constant to reach stationary regime is of order Q/freq, so that give us a maximum of a few s. And contrary to what @WarpTech suggests, this is not about power. Magnitude of power is irrelevant for this charging time constant, same situation for instance that time constant of charging of a RC circuit doesn't depend on tension (applied as a step). This is first order.

Starting from a few s and then talking about retarded em induced thrusting effects for seconds or here even minutes (I fail to find again the time per frame for torsion test 2, can anyone confirm this is a minute per frame ?) is nonsense IMO. But then, all theories developed here so far to explain real thrust at all (not spurious couplings with environment) seem nonsense to me...

I do think from the cross-correlation that we do see a correlation between em power applied vs angular position, maybe at 1 or 2 Sigmas. Even if this is the case that the spike of max magnitude of cross-correlation being very close to 0 lag is due to a real correlation, the data is clearly insufficient to be exploited and give indications as to the origin of such correlation. Assuming a lag of between 3 and 5 minutes (which is risky even if there indeed is a real correlation, since the data is sparse and noise so high) doesn't necessarily preclude an instantaneous or much faster force effect : we would need to take into account the natural time constant of the system (stiffness and inertia), or the integrating rate (inertia and thrust magnitude). The near horizontal pendulum at Eagleworks have quite a high stiffness, despite its high sensitivity, because it discriminates very small displacements on the order of m, and its time constant is a few seconds. Even the square calibration pulse results in some delayed response. I wouldn't be surprised that the torsion pendulum on baby test 2 would exhibit a lag (sloped rise) of a few minutes against a very small magnitude instantaneous excitation. This integration time for small magnitude effects would make it difficult to discriminate between an effect that takes 1s or 10s  to reach plateau, from one that takes 1s or 1 minute. So, at this level of noise, without much more data and a proper characterisation of the system the argument of lag can't neither infirm nor confirm the rate of the effect.

I wonder if the mechanical system is sensitive enough that it behaves like an electromagnetic compass, tending to align DC current loops (axis) of the electronic system with local magnetic field ? That would need a null test (on dummy load) to be checked.
« Last Edit: 06/15/2015 11:20 PM by frobnicat »

Offline Rodal

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...Has anyone else noticed that the cavity axis is not aligned exactly tangentially?
The Baby EM Drive should have been aligned with its axis of axisymmetry perpendicular to the radius of gyration.

Yes, the fact that the cavity axis is misaligned is a contributing problem: any axial force it generates can be resolved along two components:

1) a Tangential component that will accelerate or decelerate the rotational speed of the rig
2) a Radial component that will contribute to the nutation: is a rocking, swaying, motion of the axis of rotation of the rig.

The nutation of the Baby EM Drive rig is very noticeable in the output data.  Curiously, the Aachen researcher uses Electrical Engineer parlance as he descibes the nutation as looking as "a rectified sine" (although he recognizes it has nothing to do with a rectified sine).  The nutation is an outcome of the gyroscope equations of motion, as the Baby EM Drive rig behaves like a gyroscope in the magnetic levitation set-up inside the jar.









In general, for large enough motion, the gyroscopic equations are nonlinear differential equations that require numerical solution.  If Baby EM Drive is thrusting in this misaligned position, it not only is accelerating or decelerating the rotational speed, but it is also changing the nutation.  The nutation also contributes to the air drag, and you have a complicated experimental situation.

Sheila Widnall's lecture on gyroscopic equations:  http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and-astronautics/16-07-dynamics-fall-2009/lecture-notes/MIT16_07F09_Lec30.pdf

Look at the fact that as the rate of rotation decreases, the nutation increases:

« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 12:20 AM by Rodal »

Offline frobnicat

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Hello,

I'm new to this forum and want to add to the discussion:
Thrust can be achieved by various error sources interacting with the environment as many out here already pointed out. eagleworks and many others used only small input power therefore i propose a test theory which is built on a pressure gradient caused by thermal effects.
Explanation:
The measured forces are tiny but divided by the projected area in thrust direction it becomes an even smaller pressure needed for thrust.

Example for eagleworks tests:
Area: 0.0613116 m
Force~0.05mN
=> Pressure needed=0.815mPa =0.00000008% of ambient pressure.

Note that this is such a tiny pressure change that it could still be produced in near vacuum. My theory now is that this tiny pressure difference is caused by uneven heating in near wall regions (p=RTrho). Other reasons could be vibrations and magnetic fields. This effect should fairly quickly reach a constant thrust. If this theory holds up we should see a correlation between mode shape and thrust. The node shape dictates where heating occurs. All needed to test this is therefore to integrate heat production over the surfaces and add these up with respect to the orientation of said surface since the pressure gradient should be linear to this. It would probably suffice to use the B field on the boundary as an estimate for the heat production. My prediction is that certain frequencies will produce a heating pattern that is  more uneven and hence produces more thrust. With all the reference geometries we have we might see a correlation to the data. If the math has already been done i'd like to apologize.

Uneven heating can't thrust directly like that, left and right part of the frustum are not like a piston in a cylinder, they share the same volume of air (I'm speaking of the volume outside the frustum). Assuming right end heats and left one not at all. The rise of temperature of air near the right end will lower its density but will not raise its pressure, pressure equalises "instantly" (well, at speed of sound). Depending on the rate of heating, there will be a small recoil of air expanding to reach a new equilibrium at lower density but same pressure as the volume overall. This is a transient of very very low magnitude, negligible (at heating rates considered), followed by an equilibrium that gives 0 unbalance of forces. Indirectly, the lower density of heated air near right end will make it rise as convection occurs. This convection can make dynamic pressures on the order of the recorded thrusts. Paul March explained the lower magnitude of thrusts measurements in vacuum as the disappearance of such convection effects. Notice that convection magnitude depends on gravity, so g should appear somewhere in equations dealing with that.

What you are describing as direct pressure differences due to walls of uneven temperatures is valid when the gas around (the shared volume) can't equalize pressure because it is too thin. It requires pressures low enough that the mean free path of molecules is on the same order as the size of walls and container, this is the operating conditions of the Crookes radiometer. I vaguely recall someone calculated the mean free path for the (not perfect) vacuum used at Eagleworks, was it above or below what is needed for such rarefied gas effect to occur ?
« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 12:02 AM by frobnicat »

Offline snoozdoc

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 ... IMO, the frustum "should" exert thrust ONLY when charging or discharging. It's should not work when it's at equilibrium with a constant Q value, no matter how high it is. ...


Iulian Berca used the magnetron from a microwave oven to source the microwaves for his test article.  His videos suggest that he also used the ovens power supply with minimal changes.  Now a YouTube video posted on this thread a few days ago titled "Measuring the voltage and current of a microwave oven magnetron" seems to show that the duty cycle for a typical microwave oven is about 50%. This means that if his test article performed in this way, his frustum was going through an approximately 60 Hz charge and discharge cycle (depending I suppose on the AC frequency of his home country's power supply grid).

Disappointing then that his thrust data was also in the mud of noise.  But how many of the other reported tests used a relatively high charge/discharge cycle rate?  ???

Offline WarpTech

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive

The EM Drive is intentionally designed to have asymmetrical attenuation. As such, energy is reflected from the large end to be stored at the small end as induced currents. Standing waves store energy and as such, store mass. As the EM drive charges and the Q ramps up, energy from the input source is reflected from the large end and stored in the small end on each successive reflection cycle. This energy is stored as induction currents caused by the near-field effects of evanescent waves. Due to the phase shift, the Power Factor is not zero as it is with standing waves. Therefore, work can be done to move the EM Drive. This dynamic action of storing mass-energy toward the front causes the center of mass to walk forward. The increasing pressure on the small end causes the EM Drive to accelerate forward due to the internal pressure gradient, until the pressure is equalized. Then the cycle builds again. This dynamic implies that a high Q value is not required, but rather how quickly can energy be ramped up under extreme attenuation conditions.
Todd

Offline demofsky

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive

The EM Drive is intentionally designed to have asymmetrical attenuation. As such, energy is reflected from the large end to be stored at the small end as induced currents. Standing waves store energy and as such, store mass. As the EM drive charges and the Q ramps up, energy from the input source is reflected from the large end and stored in the small end on each successive reflection cycle. This energy is stored as induction currents caused by the near-field effects of evanescent waves. Due to the phase shift, the Power Factor is not zero as it is with standing waves. Therefore, work can be done to move the EM Drive. This dynamic action of storing mass-energy toward the front causes the center of mass to walk forward. The increasing pressure on the small end causes the EM Drive to accelerate forward due to the internal pressure gradient, until the pressure is equalized. Then the cycle builds again. This dynamic implies that a high Q value is not required, but rather how quickly can energy be ramped up under extreme attenuation conditions.
Todd

Todd, to help unpack this a bit, when I read "energy stored as induction currents" I think of heating the fustrum - which would be inefficient since we want kinetic not thermal effects.  So effectively a high Q system would be more inefficient because there would be more opportunity for the stored energy to leak out as heat.  A high attenuation system like Yang's would be more efficient since the energy is not sitting around as long.  Is this synopsis accurate from your perspective?  Thanks!

Offline WarpTech

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive
...

Todd, to help unpack this a bit, when I read "energy stored as induction currents" I think of heating the fustrum - which would be inefficient since we want kinetic not thermal effects....

Correct...

Quote
So effectively a high Q system would be more inefficient because there would be more opportunity for the stored energy to leak out as heat.  A high attenuation system like Yang's would be more efficient since the energy is not sitting around as long.  Is this synopsis accurate from your perspective?  Thanks!

Sounds about right. If it were superconducting, it would be more efficient and the "loss per cycle" of the Q would be lost as thrust rather than heat. It's not necessary to have a high Q, it is necessary to have a high rate of charging and discharging, F = v*dm/dt, rather than m*dv/dt.

My conjecture is that because it is the charging that walks the center of mass forward, microwaves and standing waves are not even needed. Just exponentially increasing or decreasing current densities, i.e., near field effects.
Todd

Offline demofsky

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive
...

Todd, to help unpack this a bit, when I read "energy stored as induction currents" I think of heating the fustrum - which would be inefficient since we want kinetic not thermal effects....

Correct...

Quote
So effectively a high Q system would be more inefficient because there would be more opportunity for the stored energy to leak out as heat.  A high attenuation system like Yang's would be more efficient since the energy is not sitting around as long.  Is this synopsis accurate from your perspective?  Thanks!

Sounds about right. If it were superconducting, it would be more efficient and the "loss per cycle" of the Q would be lost as thrust rather than heat. It's not necessary to have a high Q, it is necessary to have a high rate of charging and discharging, F = v*dm/dt, rather than m*dv/dt.

My conjecture is that because it is the charging that walks the center of mass forward, microwaves and standing waves are not even needed. Just exponentially increasing or decreasing current densities, i.e., near field effects.
Todd

I have wondered about this as well, in the sense of tapered optical waveguides or the  equivalent for a strip line on a printed circuit - especially for higher frequencies.  Taking this one step forward there are also meta materials. 

But how would you create those exponentially increasing/decreasing current densities without, say, microwaves?

Offline Rodal

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It looks like CHAOTIC motion to me.  The Chaotic Baby EM Drive. 



By comparison, Iulian Berca's test was a beautiful symphony (of course it took 800 Watts to do that).

Another day, another Baby EM Drive experiment, cavity direction is inverted compared to the previous test.
I wonder why they are still using water instead of oil to dampen the motion.  How difficult is it to get oil in Germany?
And most of all, I wonder why don't they instead go back to their first experiment in magnetic levitation but do it under a partial vacuum this time.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=110&v=t04i2l4jcd0

https://hackaday.io/project/5596-em-drive/log/19598-torsion-test-3-8-hours
« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 12:24 PM by Rodal »

Offline Prunesquallor

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It looks like CHAOTIC motion to me

Another day, another Baby EM Drive experiment, cavity direction is inverted compared to the previous test.
I wonder why they are still using water instead of oil to dampen the motion.  How difficult is it to get oil in Germany?
I wonder why don't they instead go back to their first experiment in magnetic levitation but do it under a partial vacuum this time

https://hackaday.io/project/5596-em-drive/log/19598-torsion-test-3-8-hours

I could convince myself I see a lower frequency oscillation that is weakly driven by the thruster on-times.
Retired, yet... not

Where are the thruster ON times indicated ?

"Pink: thruster ON"   ;)

Offline hhexo

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And most of all, I wonder why don't they instead go back to their first experiment in magnetic levitation but do it under a partial vacuum this time.

From an engineering point of view, I'd say components would be damaged due to internal pressure, maybe not to the point of blowing up, but definitely in a significant way. I'm thinking mostly of the batteries, but it could also be that the radar module they're using has non-vacuum-resistant capacitors.
This is the problem EW had too, if I remember correctly; they had to purchase new vacuum-resistant components.

Still, I concur that the floating setup seems more controllable and precise compared to this:
Quote
https://hackaday.io/project/5596-em-drive/log/19598-torsion-test-3-8-hours
Looking at the photos I'm not entirely surprised about the resulting noise levels.

It's a pity the noise level completely dwarfs any signal that might or might not be there. They ran it for 8 hours straight and the resulting data is not really usable. :(
« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 02:00 PM by hhexo »

Offline Rodal

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And most of all, I wonder why don't they instead go back to their first experiment in magnetic levitation but do it under a partial vacuum this time.

From an engineering point of view, I'd say components would be damaged due to internal pressure, maybe not to the point of blowing up, but definitely in a significant way. I'm thinking mostly of the batteries, but it could also be that the radar module they're using has non-vacuum-resistant capacitors.
This is the problem EW had too, if I remember correctly; they had to purchase new vacuum-resistant components.

Still, I concur that the floating setup seems more controllable and precise compared to this:
Quote
https://hackaday.io/project/5596-em-drive/log/19598-torsion-test-3-8-hours
Looking at the photos I'm not entirely surprised about the resulting noise levels.
Atmospheric pressure in low Earth orbit ("LEO") = 5x10^(-8) to 10^(-10) Torr.

1 Torr = 1/760 of a standard atmosphere = 1.3*10^(-3) of a standard atmosphere

Initially, Eagleworks had problems due to their capacitors. NASA Eagleworks performed experiments at 5*10^(-6) Torr, about 100 times higher pressure than the highest pressure one finds in the lowest LEO.  On the other hand, one standard atmosphere is 152 million times greater pressure than the partial vacuum used by NASA Eagleworks.  So we have a huge range of partial vacuums in between standard atmosphere and the partial vacuum used by NASA.

For the Baby EM Drive experiment they don't need to go immediately to 5*10^(-6) Torr or better partial vacuum, to significantly reduce the problem with air drag

They could explore higher pressure partial vacuums,  for example start

Now: 760 Torr = 1 standard atmosphere
move to
250 Torr= 33% of a standard atmosphere (pressure at the top of Mt. Everest)
move to
100 Torr = 13% of a standard atmosphere
move to
10 Torr =1% of a standard atmosphere
move to
1 Torr = 0.1 %  of a standard atmosphere
move  to
1*10^(-1) Torr = 0.01% of a standard atmosphere

move to
1*10^(-2) Torr
move to
1*10^(-3) Torr
move to
1*10^(-4) Torr ,
move to
1*10^(-5) Torr,
move to
5*10^(-6) Torr = 6.6*10^(-9) standard atmosphere,  NASA's Partial Vacuum.

Many lower levels of partial vacuum that may evacuate a significant amount of air, reduce air drag, without much affecting the electronics.

There is a big difference in air drag that an aircraft encounters when flying at ground level vs. flying at normal altitude.  Similarly, all that the Aachen team needs to explore initially is reduced level of pressure as the ones found in the upper atmosphere (no need to explore the vacuum of space at this point in time) to reduce air drag.
« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 02:44 PM by Rodal »

Offline SeeShells

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive

The EM Drive is intentionally designed to have asymmetrical attenuation. As such, energy is reflected from the large end to be stored at the small end as induced currents. Standing waves store energy and as such, store mass. As the EM drive charges and the Q ramps up, energy from the input source is reflected from the large end and stored in the small end on each successive reflection cycle. This energy is stored as induction currents caused by the near-field effects of evanescent waves. Due to the phase shift, the Power Factor is not zero as it is with standing waves. Therefore, work can be done to move the EM Drive. This dynamic action of storing mass-energy toward the front causes the center of mass to walk forward. The increasing pressure on the small end causes the EM Drive to accelerate forward due to the internal pressure gradient, until the pressure is equalized. Then the cycle builds again. This dynamic implies that a high Q value is not required, but rather how quickly can energy be ramped up under extreme attenuation conditions.
Todd
I look at it this way and correct me if I'm wrong. The EM Drive could be thought of like this. You are trapped in an enclosed tank with a fire extinguisher and you turn on the fire extinguisher expecting it to move the tank, it doesn't because it's a enclosed system, but if you run up the side of the tank changing the local enclosed gravity profile of the tank, then you can move it in the direction you are running. And you haven't violated any laws just changed the local enclosed profile.
Shell

Offline rfmwguy

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You might want to bookmark this link: http://www.ustream.tv/channel/em-drive-experiment

This is my ustream video channel where I will try and broadcast a live 1st test of my humble DIYDrive experiment in July. I may upload some videos in the meantime as I get further into the build.

I have set chat up as well, but only plan to use it after a video upload or live event. I won't be routinely monitoring it. I'll hang here for most interactions.

For now, you can log on to ustream for free, preferably creating the same username as you have on NSF, so I will know who I'm chatting with.

Oh, forgot to mention. Click FOLLOW once your account is created, then you'll receive notices when uploads occur.
« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 02:38 PM by rfmwguy »

Offline foob

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I look at it this way and correct me if I'm wrong. The EM Drive could be thought of like this. You are trapped in an enclosed tank with a fire extinguisher and you turn on the fire extinguisher expecting it to move the tank, it doesn't because it's a enclosed system, but if you run up the side of the tank changing the local enclosed gravity profile of the tank, then you can move it in the direction you are running. And you haven't violated any laws just changed the local enclosed profile.
Shell

It's an interesting idea, but the flaw is the concept of an enclosed system. In moving up the tank wall you are working against the local gravity which is part of the working system. If your tank was in orbit, you could run around the inside all day and you'd get the tank spinning, but not change your orbit, as opposed to rolling across the ground, constantly applying a torque and lifting yourself against gravity.

Offline Rodal

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive

The EM Drive is intentionally designed to have asymmetrical attenuation. As such, energy is reflected from the large end to be stored at the small end as induced currents. Standing waves store energy and as such, store mass. As the EM drive charges and the Q ramps up, energy from the input source is reflected from the large end and stored in the small end on each successive reflection cycle. This energy is stored as induction currents caused by the near-field effects of evanescent waves. Due to the phase shift, the Power Factor is not zero as it is with standing waves. Therefore, work can be done to move the EM Drive. This dynamic action of storing mass-energy toward the front causes the center of mass to walk forward. The increasing pressure on the small end causes the EM Drive to accelerate forward due to the internal pressure gradient, until the pressure is equalized. Then the cycle builds again. This dynamic implies that a high Q value is not required, but rather how quickly can energy be ramped up under extreme attenuation conditions.
Todd
Got to find some way that enough mass (or energy) leaks out (somehow) asymmetrically of the EM Drive to justify the claimed self-acceleration of its center of mass without breaking Conservation of Momentum.

Either that, or you have to couple to an external directional field.
« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 02:55 PM by Rodal »

Offline WarpTech

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive

The EM Drive is intentionally designed to have asymmetrical attenuation. As such, energy is reflected from the large end to be stored at the small end as induced currents. Standing waves store energy and as such, store mass. As the EM drive charges and the Q ramps up, energy from the input source is reflected from the large end and stored in the small end on each successive reflection cycle. This energy is stored as induction currents caused by the near-field effects of evanescent waves. Due to the phase shift, the Power Factor is not zero as it is with standing waves. Therefore, work can be done to move the EM Drive. This dynamic action of storing mass-energy toward the front causes the center of mass to walk forward. The increasing pressure on the small end causes the EM Drive to accelerate forward due to the internal pressure gradient, until the pressure is equalized. Then the cycle builds again. This dynamic implies that a high Q value is not required, but rather how quickly can energy be ramped up under extreme attenuation conditions.
Todd
I look at it this way and correct me if I'm wrong. The EM Drive could be thought of like this. You are trapped in an enclosed tank with a fire extinguisher and you turn on the fire extinguisher expecting it to move the tank, it doesn't because it's a enclosed system, but if you run up the side of the tank changing the local enclosed gravity profile of the tank, then you can move it in the direction you are running. And you haven't violated any laws just changed the local enclosed profile.
Shell

I think it's more like milk sloshing around in a 1/4 filled container.  ;D

Or someone outside is throwing tennis balls in through the side, and someone on the inside is whacking them at the front wall where they stick.
« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 03:14 PM by WarpTech »

Offline WarpTech

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I've updated my Theory on the Wiki.

http://emdrive.wiki/Todd_Desiato_(@WarpTech)%27s_Evanescent_Wave_Theory#Application_of_Theory_to_the_EmDrive

The EM Drive is intentionally designed to have asymmetrical attenuation. As such, energy is reflected from the large end to be stored at the small end as induced currents. Standing waves store energy and as such, store mass. As the EM drive charges and the Q ramps up, energy from the input source is reflected from the large end and stored in the small end on each successive reflection cycle. This energy is stored as induction currents caused by the near-field effects of evanescent waves. Due to the phase shift, the Power Factor is not zero as it is with standing waves. Therefore, work can be done to move the EM Drive. This dynamic action of storing mass-energy toward the front causes the center of mass to walk forward. The increasing pressure on the small end causes the EM Drive to accelerate forward due to the internal pressure gradient, until the pressure is equalized. Then the cycle builds again. This dynamic implies that a high Q value is not required, but rather how quickly can energy be ramped up under extreme attenuation conditions.
Todd
Got to find some way that enough mass (or energy) leaks out (somehow) asymmetrically of the EM Drive to justify the claimed self-acceleration of its center of mass without breaking Conservation of Momentum.

Either that, or you have to couple to an external directional field.

(delete)

EDIT: I'm confused as to why putting energy "in" does not result in the same physics as letting energy "out". If the system is gaining energy from the outside, +dm/dt, why is that not the same as expelling it to the outside as -dm/dt in the opposite direction?

« Last Edit: 06/16/2015 03:36 PM by WarpTech »

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