Author Topic: ISRO Mars Orbiter Mission - Nov 2013 launch to September 2014 arrival - UPDATES  (Read 453662 times)

Offline Ohsin

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 ;D

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#HappyNewYear, dear earthlings! North pole looks wicked cool here!

https://twitter.com/MarsOrbiter/status/682787412821463040

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HDR Shot of mars full disc from a distance of 55000 km. North Pole is clearly seen.

https://twitter.com/isro/status/682792543642202113

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This is a snapshot of  mars full disc captured from a distance of 55000 km.  North Pole is clearly seen in this shot. This High Dynamic Range (HDR) image was generated out of multiple shots of same view  bringing dark to bright feature details  in a better way

Image is named "26dec_mcc.png" May be it was taken very recently.
http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/mars-full-disc-image-mom
« Last Edit: 01/01/2016 09:58 AM by Ohsin »
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Offline vineethgk

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Wowww... Beautiful.. And about time too.. How about submitting a collective request to ISRO to take more such global snaps using MoM?
« Last Edit: 01/01/2016 03:52 PM by vineethgk »

Offline vyoma

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Global Albedo Map of Mars using MSM data from Mars Orbiter Mission

The albedo of the surface is defined as the fraction of incident solar radiation reflected by the surface.
The magnitude and spatial distribution of Martian surface albedo are important inputs for characterization of Martian surface and Atmospheric circulation. Global Short Wave Infra Red (SWIR) albedo map in wavelength band 1.64-1.66 µm has been derived using Mars Orbiter Mission -Methane Sensor for Mars (MOM-MSM) data for the surface of Mars. Five months (October 2014- February 2015) of MSM radiance data for reference channel are converted to the top of atmosphere reflectance normalised to sun-sensor viewing geometry and incoming solar flux. The global view of MSM derived Martian SWIR albedo has been averaged at ~50 km spatial resolution.

The bright regions (albedo > 0.4) are mainly localized over the Tharsis plateau, Arbia Terra and Elysium Planitia regions of Mars. The low albedo regions (< 0.15) are mainly localized in Syrtis Major and Southern highlands and parts of Northern hemisphere. In general low albedo values are associated with darker surface on Mars having volcanic rock basalt as surface exposures. Higher albedo values represents surface covered by Dust. The area shown in blue colour indicates the presence of basaltic composition while red indicates the dust covered regions of Mars.

Offline Ohsin

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After the completion of one year of primary mission (September 2015), MOM was made to dip down to 260 kilometers from its normal periapsis altitude of 400 kilometers. While dipping down, MENCA had better chances of collecting data on neutral species data. The newly published paper reports that MENCA has successfully measured the altitudinal profiles of CO2, (N2+CO) and O. It gives me an immense satisfaction and PRIDE that MENCA has come up with flying colors

http://www.planetary.org/blogs/guest-blogs/2016/0225-menca-brings-divine-wealth.html

Paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL067707/full

Also not MOM related but still..

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Michael Meyer: recent ISRO-NASA talks have opened door to Indian instruments on NASA 2022 Mars orbiter, or NASA ones on ISRO orbiter #mepag

https://twitter.com/jeff_foust/status/705097172287500288
« Last Edit: 03/02/2016 06:52 PM by Ohsin »
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Offline Ohsin

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A new tiny one after a while.

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Snapshot of Mars terrain

Snapshot of  Mars terrain captured from a distance of 26,300 km on Dec 30, 2015. The image shows major volcanoes of Mars. Tharsis montes, Ascraeus  mons  and Tharsis tholus are seen in this image.

http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/snapshot-of-mars-terrain
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Offline Ohsin

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Latest Picture From Mars Orbiter

This MCC picture portrays a large area of Mars covering almost 1800 km x 1800 km. MCC frames cover different extents according  to the altitude of the spacecraft. MCC frame captures 20 km x 20 km when MOM is in perigee and the entire Mars Disc  from altitudes 60,000 km onwards.

The major features with high (bright) and low (dark) albedo regions  are covered in this shot.  High albedo regions are those covered by fine dust layer which  are rich in ferrous oxide contents and the low ones represents bare rock basaltic regions.

This image is taken on Dec 11, 2015 at an altitude of 16,547 km and resolution of 827 m.
http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/latest-picture-mars-orbiter
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Offline Ohsin

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The Brightest desert region of Mars

MCC image taken over one of the brightest desert regions of Mars called Thymiamata located at the areographic coordinates (10°N, 10°W) surrounded by Shardi, Trouvelot, Rutherford, Radau, Marth and Kalocsa craters outside the image frame.

The features found in this image are yet to be named, other than the Thymiamata region.

This image was captured on August 13, 2015 from an altitude of 4490 km with a resolution of 225 m and has been enhanced for visual appeal.
http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/brightest-desert-region-of-mars

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Valles Marineris
Valles Marineris is a grand canyon system present along the equator of Mars. The Valles Marineris is a large tectonic crack present on the Martian crust running up-to a length of around 4000km, 200 km wide and 7 km deep. This is an MCC multiscene images ( from Nov, 2014 acquisitions) mosaic portraying complete Valles Marineris feature produced after applying geometric and radiometric corrections. Different canyons in the Valles Marineris were seen in MCC image such as Ophir Chasma, Hydrae Chasma and Melas Chasma.
http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/valles-marineris
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Offline Ohsin

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MENCA observed the evening exosphere of Mars

The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA), onboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a mass spectrometer, provides in-situ measurements of the neutral composition of the exosphere of the Mars. MENCA is capable of measuring relative abundances of neutral constituents in the mass range 1 to 300 atomic mass unit (amu); the major gases in the Martian atmosphere fall in this range. In addition to acquiring the mass spectra in a specified mass range, the instrument has a provision to track the time variation of the abundances of a set of selectable species. The observation from MENCA will help in understanding the escape of the Martian atmosphere.

At the surface of Mars, the atmosphere is rich in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and very thin (~6 millbar), about 1% of that of Earth. In the upper part of the Martian atmosphere, at around 100 km, the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight breaks CO2 molecule into Carbon Monoxide (CO) molecule and Oxygen (O) atom. The CO also can be broken by solar UV radiation into C and O atoms. The oxygen atoms are about three times lighter than the CO2 molecules and two times lighter than CO molecules. Hence, oxygen atoms have larger scale height, which means it's density at higher heights falls-off slower compared to that of CO and CO2. Hence, there comes a region in Martian upper atmosphere where the number of O atoms exceeds the number of CO2 molecules. The altitude at which this change-over (CO2 dominance to O dominance) happens depends on how deep the solar UV rays penetrate the Mars atmosphere.

The figure below shows the MENCA-measured abundances of the major gases, namely, atomic Oxygen (O, 16 amu), Nitrogen molecule (N2) plus Carbon Monoxide (CO, 28 amu), and Carbon Dioxide (CO2, 44 amu), in the exosphere of Mars on 21 December 2014, during Martian evening (around sunset in the sky of Mars), from 265 km to 400 km altitude. These observations correspond to moderate solar activity conditions and when MOM’s periapsis altitude was the lowest (~265 km).

MENCA observations have shown that the abundance of Oxygen exceeds that of Carbon Dioxide at an altitude of  270 ±10 km during Martian evening. From the variation of the abundances of different gases with the altitude, the temperature of the Martian exosphere was found to be about 271 ±5 K (-7 to +3 °C). These measurements were conducted when Mars was closer to the Sun in its elliptical orbit (i.e., at perihelion); it is still cooler when Mars is farthest from the Sun.

These are the first in-situ measurements of composition during the local dusk sector on Mars, which would help in setting up the boundary conditions for models dealing with thermal escape processes. The models are basically used to understand the evolution of atmospheres to its present state and its response to various forces.

It is important to note that the CO2-to-O dominance transition altitude differs in day and night, and also varies with different seasons of Mars (due to similar tilt of rotation axis as on Earth, Mars has seasons similar to that on Earth), as well as depends on how active is the Sun.

MENCA has provided several measurements of the composition of the key species of the Martian neutral exosphere.
The above results are published in American journal, Geophysical Research Letters. vol. 43, pp. 1862–1867, (2016).
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Offline Ohsin

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Olympus Mons - a large shield volcano on the planet Mars

Olympus Mons is a large shield volcano on the planet Mars. It has a height of nearly 22 km. Olympus Mons stands almost three times as tall as Mount Everest's height above sea level. It is the youngest of the large volcanoes on Mars, having formed during Mars's Amazonian Period. Several meteorological factors contribute to cloud formation.

This MCC image was taken on April 11, 2016 at an altitude of 22,794 km and resolution of 1,185 meters. The image shows cloud around Olympus Mons Region.

http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/olympus-mons-large-shield-volcano-planet-mars

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Mosaic of North Pole of Mars by MOM-MCC

MCC on-board MOM captured many images of north pole of Mars during Dec 2015 to Jan 2016. Photometric and topography corrected mosaic showing ice cap is prepared

http://www.sac.gov.in
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Offline Ohsin

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MCC snapshot covering large region of Mars

This MCC snapshot covers a large region of mars from Coogon valles and Oxia Palus  at the bottom to focas region to the right top. Oxia Palus region has been studied to have abundant clay minerals. This is a map corrected MCC data set that can be overlaid on  existing maps derived from earlier Mars observation missions. High, low albedo regions along with many craters are seen.

This image was captured by MCC on April 14, 2016 from an altitude of 21,924 km and with a resolution of 1.1 km. It covers 2100 x 2100 sq.km area approximately.

http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/mcc-snapshot-covering-large-region-of-mars
« Last Edit: 05/21/2016 06:49 AM by Ohsin »
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Offline vyoma

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MOM overview ISRO 2015-16 annual report:

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MARS ORBITER MISSION

Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) completed two years after its launch on November 05, 2013 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. ISRO has been continuously monitoring the spacecraft using its Deep Space Network complemented by that of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of NASA. MOM completed its design life duration of 6 months of orbiting around Mars on March 24, 2015. It has now outlived its expected life and has spent over an year (completed on September 24, 2015) orbiting Mars.

MOM went through a communication blackout as a result of solar conjunction from June 2, 2015 to July 2, 2015. Telemetry data was received even during most of the conjunction period except for 9 days from June 10 - 18, 2015, during superior conjunction. MOM was commanded with autonomy features starting May 18, 2015, which enabled the spacecraft to survive the communication blackout situation without any ground commands or intervention. The spacecraft could therefore successfully emerge out of blackout period with auto control of spacecraft systems.

The national and international scientific community accorded laurels on ISRO for successfully placing MOM in Mars orbit in the very first attempt, and MOM was awarded one of the 25 best inventions of 2014 as listed by American News magazine ‘Time’ and Space Pioneer award of 2015 instituted by National Space Society of USA. In view of attaining this significant achievement in space technology, ISRO was awarded with Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for the year 2014.

Mars Colour Camera (MCC) has acquired more than 440 images so far. By virtue of MOM’s unique elliptical orbit, MCC could image the full Martian disc at single shot and also the Phobos and Deimos, the two moons of Mars from close distances. MOM is the only Martian artificial satellite which could image the far side of Deimos.

Mars Atlas was prepared and made available on ISRO website (www.isro.gov.in) for general public.

The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) payload has observed several species in its neutral mass spectrum. Specific studies of altitude variation of these are made. Since Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS) has an uncooled bolometer as detector, good sensitivity is obtained only during higher temperatures and a few images are taken under appropriate observation conditions.

The Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) payload has had 80 operations so far and hydrogen Lyman alpha intensity is estimated as a function of altitude and further studies are underway.

ISRO has made an announcement of opportunity for utilising the MOM data to encourage and expand the scientific community to access and analyse the data.

Offline Ohsin

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Same mosaic again but text is slightly detailed.

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Mosaic of Martian North Pole and Ice Cap from MOM

Mars Colour Camera (MCC) on-board Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) captured many images of North Pole of Mars. Topographically corrected MCC reflectance mosaic is prepared by Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, Ahmedabad using nine MCC images observed during December 16, 2015 to January 26, 2016.

The period of observation corresponds to the solar longitude (Ls) from 82° to 100° of 33rd Martian year. To keep the track of time on Mars, the position of Mars in its orbit around the Sun is used; it is a kind of longitudinal system that goes from 0 to 360 degrees. Therefore solar longitudes (Ls) is used to keep track of the seasons on Mars; the Ls=0° is the start of northern spring and Ls=180° is the start of southern spring.

The individual images are converted to atmosphere reflectance (I/F) and then, Minnaert topographic correction is applied. The image shown is projected into Sample Azimuthal Equal Area, the resulting pieces were mosaicked for full view of the polar cap. The seasonal Martian polar caps wax and wane in response to the condensation and sublimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) resulting from seasonal insolation changes on Mars.

In northern winters (Ls=270-360°), the polar cap grows much larger in area since atmospheric CO2 freezes and deposits a layer of dry ice (frozen CO2) on top of the ice cap and the surrounding terrain. When summer returns (Ls=90-180°), warm temperatures cause the dry ice to sublimate away, and the polar cap shrinks in size.

The period of North Pole observation from MCC belongs to the end of northern spring and early summers, showing seasonal sublimation. The northern ice cap on Mars extends about 1,100 km from pole. Major topographic and surface albedo features are easily seen in this mosaic. The edge of the ice cap is surrounded by "polar layered terrain", a series of layers of ice and dust. The ground throughout the Polar Regions appears to have lots of ice in or under the soil. Winds caused by temperature differences between the ice cap and its surrounding, blow throughout the Polar Regions. They carve interesting grooves into the ice cap, and build up sand dunes in areas around the pole. Light brown areas are a mix of ice and dust and are called "polar layered terrain". Dark brown areas around the ice cap are sand dunes. The huge canyon, Chasma Boreale  is seen in the ice cap on the left side of the picture.

http://www.isro.gov.in/mosaic-of-martian-north-pole-and-ice-cap-mom
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Offline Ohsin

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Arena Dorsum region of Mars

This MCC image was acquired on May 14 ,2016  at an altitude of 47,437 km with a resolution of 2.37 km. MCC image covers almost the entire disk of mars. The dark and bright portions owe their albedo changes due to the materials present in those regions.

True mars color composite was produced by additional processing taking into consideration of spectral bandwidths of red, green and blue profiles, their overlap and geophysical validation. This image was also enhanced for better visual appeal.

http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/arena-dorsum-region-of-mars
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Offline Ohsin

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Retreat of Northern Polar Ice Cap observed by Mars Orbiter Mission- Mars Colour Camera (MOM-MCC)

The northern polar ice cap is a mass of ice and dust layers, comprising mainly CO2 & H2O. It is approximately 1,000 kilometers across. The polar cap shows dark, spiral-shaped bands (figure 1). These are deep troughs of polar caps. Using Mars Orbiter Mission-Mars Colour Camera (MOMMCC), area of North Pole Ice Cap has been measured for retreat of Northern Polar Ice Cap during northern summer of Mars. Analysis of MCC data has shown the changes in the area of polar ice cap during the northern summer period of Mars (26th December 2015 to 22nd January 2016). MCC has acquired a large number of datasets of northern Polar Ice Caps from Solar Longitude (LS) 86° to Solar Longitude (LS) 98°. The retreat of North Polar Ice Cap was observed during this period. Figure1 shows that the area of ice cover is decreasing from 381096 Sq. km. to 340538 Sq. km (10.5%) between(LS) 86° to (LS) 98° (graph in figure 1). Blue lines in figure 1 show the area from where the ice is sublimated.

http://vedas.sac.gov.in/vedas/downloads/ice_cap_vedas2.pdf

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Monitoring of Northern Polar Ice Cap by Mars Colour Camera onboard Mars Orbiter Mission

Mars Colour Camera (MCC) onboard Mars Orbiter Mission is in a unique eccentric & elliptical orbit around Mars, which helps it to image Mars & its Moons differently as compared to other international missions. The North polar ice cap (NPIC) of Mars was imaged by MCC between Solar Longitude – (LS) 86.970 to Solar Longitude (LS) 98.550), during northern summer season on Mars. Three images were taken by MCC between 26/12/2015 & 22/01/2016 during which the altitude of MOM, from Mars, was varying from 57169 km to 71217 km.

The sublimation of polar ice was in progress and the changes in the areal extent of polar ice cap during the said period has been very accurately captured by MCC. The area of polar ice cap is estimated to have reduced from 381096 sq.km. to 340538 sq. km. (10.5%) in 12 LS (from 86.970 to 98.550) It suggests an approximate rate of 3380 sq. km. per LS observed during the period of observation. The graph shows progressive reduction in areal extent of NPIC vis.a.vis the solar longitudes. The monitoring of Martian Polar Ice Cap by MCC is well facilitated by multi-temporal images of MCC taken from apoapsis. Continuation of monitoring of the Ice caps in future can lead to significant and vital scientific information . Images from MCC instrument onboard MOM, depicts views of the northern polar region of Mars on different Solar longitude.

http://www.sac.gov.in/Vyom/ExploratorySciences.jsp
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Offline Ohsin

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MOM successfully came out of ‘whiteout’ Phase

Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft experienced the ‘whiteout’ geometry during May 18 to May 30, 2016. The planets continuously in motion can align with the sun causing ‘whiteout’ or 'blackout' causing communication disruptions. In this particular geometry, the Earth came in between the Sun and Mars causing a ‘whiteout’.

A ‘whiteout’ occurs when the Earth is between the Sun and Mars and too much solar radiation may make it impossible to communicate with the Earth. The maximum duration of ‘whiteout’ is around 14 days. MOM spacecraft experienced the ‘whiteout’ during last month (May, 2016). However, MOM is built with full autonomy to take care of itself for long periods without any ground intervention.

The entire planning and commanding for the ‘whiteout’ was completed 10 days before the actual event. No commanding was carried out on the satellite in the ‘whiteout’ period. Payload operations were suspended.  Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery were kept enabled, so as to take care of any contingency on the spacecraft. Master Recovery Sequencer was programmed, to acquire the attitude of the spacecraft and ensure communication with earth even in case of loss of attitude.

The spacecraft came out of ‘whiteout’ geometry successfully on May 30, 2016 and has been normalised for regular operations.

It may be recalled, MOM went through a communication 'blackout' as a result of solar conjunction from June 2, 2015 to July 2, 2015. Telemetry data was received during most of the conjunction period except for 9 days from June 10-18, during superior conjunction. MOM was commanded with autonomy features starting from May 18, 2015, which enabled it to survive the communication 'blackout' period without any ground commands or intervention. The spacecraft emerged out of 'blackout' period with auto control of the spacecraft systems successfully. This experience had enabled the mission team to program a spacecraft about one month in advance for all operations.
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Offline vyoma

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MCC 3D View Movie made from Mars global mosaic

MCC full disc images are actually obtained in perspective geometry. These images have been rectified using geometric correction steps to align to the Mars global map including a map projection step. Each one of the full disc images covers partial portion of the Mars disc but not complete. While mosaicing the images, relative geometric differences were removed by additional image registration procedure. A seamless Mars full disc canvas was prepared, adjusting the colour differences between images.

Subsequently, the Mars Global mosaic was rendered by a 3D Planet engine with the parameters specific to Mars enabling to take any view of the planet according to the viewer position and altitude.

Eight full disc images from Dec2015 and Jan 2016 MCC were used. The Pixel Resolution was uniformly scaled to 4 km pixels.

http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/mcc-3d-view-movie-made-mars-global-mosaic
« Last Edit: 07/01/2016 03:06 AM by vyoma »

Offline Ohsin

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MCC Image of Impact Crater - Flammarion

This MCC image was taken on July 10, 2016 from an altitude of 5,439 km. It covers Impact Crater called Flammarion situated at Indus Vallis. Flammarion has several layers of deposit due to different geological processes. The picture shows a heavily cratered landscape with bright and low albedo features.

This image was obtained after the "MOM White Out" during June 2016 when there was no communication to Earth.

http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/mcc-image-of-impact-crater-flammarion

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Offline vyoma

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Offline Ohsin

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A martian year completed around Mars ;D In January they will be changing its orbit to enable it to survive eclipses.

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Long eclipses of ~500 minutes expected in Feb 2017 due to eclipses occurring in apoareion compared to the <100 minute eclipses which were near periareion so far ;
http://www.isro.gov.in/second-anniversary-of-mom-launch-celebrated

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“While this mission was meant to last for six months, this September 24 we will be completing two years and we still have enough fuel for the five payloads working on it to last many more years. We have one activity, which we will be doing in January of next year, when the long duration eclipse period could cripple the satellite if no corrections are done,”

<snip>

“The batteries on the satellite cannot support long duration eclipse and we are going to change the trajectory of the satellite so that the eclipse duration comes down. And once that is done the satellite can last many more years and we can study multiple seasons and activities on Mars,” he added

The eclipse of Mars is expected to happen in the first half of January will last 7-8 hours. By changing the trajectory, ISRO expects to cut down the duration of the eclipse by half.

Though Mangalyaan is close to spending two years in the Martian orbit, it still contains about 30 kilograms of fuel, the ISRO chief said.

http://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/no-trajectory-correction-in-january-2017-could-cripple-mangalyaan-isro-chief/

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Offline vyoma

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MENCA payload update from ISRO SPL 2014-25 annual report.

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