Author Topic: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites  (Read 57304 times)

Offline Stan Black

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2918
  • Liked: 143
  • Likes Given: 109
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #60 on: 02/08/2014 07:54 AM »
I've published pictures of the two Resurs satellites on display in Samara.

http://www.kosmonavtika.com/satellites/ressource/visite/visite.html

By the way, you can notice that satellite n°168, launched on 18th november 1997, has serial number 77031168.

It sounds like it donated its rocket to Kosmos-2343.

In 1993 the fifth Don type satellite under name Kosmos-2262, went up on the rocket from the sixth Don.
07.09.1993 Soyuz-U2 № 77044356 17Ф12 № 76024355

The rocket from the fifth Don was used for Progress; but did not use sintin propellant. This followed two previous Progress on borrowed Military rockets.
22.05.1994 Soyuz-U2 № 76024355 Progress M-23
http://novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/forum/messages/forum13/topic304/message500362/#message500362

In 1996 the following was planned from Baikonur:-
Soyuz-U № Х15000-649 Progress M-32
Soyuz-U PVB № Х15000-049 17Ф12 № 77044356

Soyuz-U № Х15000-649 needed repairs, so Progress used the other available rocket.
31.07.1996 Soyuz-U PVB № Х15000-049 Progress M-32
http://88.210.62.157/content/numbers/129/05.shtml

Soyuz-U № Х15000-649 returned to factory, and engines used to complete Soyuz-U № Х15000-639.
http://88.210.62.157/content/numbers/137/09.shtml

Don used rocket from Resurs-F1M.
15.05.1997 Soyuz-U PVB № 77031168 17Ф12 № 77044356

18.11.1997 Soyuz-U PVB № 054 Resurs-F1M 14Ф43 № 77031168

« Last Edit: 11/17/2014 08:30 PM by Stan Black »

Offline Nicolas PILLET

  • Member
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2279
  • Gien, France
    • Kosmonavtika
  • Liked: 434
  • Likes Given: 59
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #61 on: 02/08/2014 07:59 AM »
Back in 1966, there was a test of an electric propulsion system called "Yantar" that was developed by Yuzhnoye, and launch on the Cosmos-2 rocket.

I do not think there is any connection between this electric propulsion test and the later Yantar film return capsules.



There is a Yantar-2 propulsion system in Moscow Polytechnical Museum.
Nicolas PILLET
Kosmonavtika : The French site on Russian Space

Offline B. Hendrickx

  • Full Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 533
  • Liked: 248
  • Likes Given: 9
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #62 on: 02/08/2014 08:55 PM »
I've just realized that Yantar original project belongs to KB Yuzhnoye. There were two satellites : Yantar-1 and Yantar-2.
In 1967, the project was transfered to TsSKB, located in Samara, called Kuybychev at that time. Maybe the letter "K" in "Yantar-2K" means "Kuybychev" ? It would be coherent with the time...
For example, DS satellites has been named like this because Yuzhnoye's engineers thought that "MS" satellites were "Moskovskye Sputniki"...

A 1994 book about the Yuzhnoye design bureau [1] notes that in October 1971 a Government Resolution was passed for the development of a system "for global television reconnaissance" and the name Taifun was linked to the programme.   This is confusing because the name Taifun is known to relate to the Yug, Vektor and Romb-deploying satellites, used for radar calibration.

The book also notes that in the early 1960s Yuzhnoye were also looking at the development of  a series of satellites called DS-U4 which was described as being a "unified satellite with descent capsule(s)": there would have been DS-U4-T and DS-U4-B variants developed for "technological" and biological research.

Yuzhnoye proposed two types of photoreconnaissance satellite: an area survey Yantar-1 (11F622) and a close look Yantar-2 (11F623).   However, both satellites were too heavy for the planned launch vehicles and as part of the re-organisation of the Soviet space programme in 1964, work on the Yantar proposals was transferred to the Kuibyshev Branch 3 of OKB-1, where the Zenit development and manufacture was then being undertaken.


[1]   V Pallo-Korystin, Dneprovskii Raketno-Kosmisheskii Tsentr, Yuzhnoye Engineering Factory publication (1994).

I can add some details from the 2004 Yuzhnoye history "Prizvany vremenem".

- Yantar :

Following some preliminary work that began in 1961, the Yangel bureau was assigned to develop the Yantars by an order of the State Committee for Defense Technology on 23 November 1963. Yantar-1 (area survey) was also known as DS-F2 and Yantar-2 (close-look) as DS-F4. Launch vehicle was to be the 11K69KF (a Tsiklon-2 variant not described elsewhere). The satellites consisted of four compartments (return capsule, instrument compartment, electricity supply compartment, engine compartment). Reduction of mass was achieved among other things through the use of thinner photographic film, fuel cells for power supply, microthrusters for attitude control and a unified engine system for both orbital corrections and the deorbit burn. Among the advantages of the system were its ability to more accurately determine the coordinates of the observed objects and the "lower cost of the annual launch programme". The project was transferred to Kozlov's bureau in Kuibyshev in 1967 because of  a reorganisation of work at the Yangel bureau (part of the workforce was transferred from satellite to ICBM development).

- DS-U4 :

Maximum mass is given as 550 kg, the launch vehicle apparently would have been the 11K65M (Kosmos-3M). The book talks about "biological" and "technical" versions of the descent capsule to study the effects of the space environment on "living organisms and materials". Note the use of the word "technical" rather than "technological" (the latter being used in Russian space parlance for materials processing experiments). There was also a similar looking DS-U5 (without return capsule) with a propulsion system that would have allowed it to reach 4000 km circular orbits or elliptical orbits with an apogee of up to 10,000 km.  Preliminary designs for both satellites were finished in 1965 and 1966, but work was stopped in 1967 for the same reason as Yantar (internal reorganisation of the design bureau). 

- The global TV reconnaissance system :

Initial work on this system was done at Kozlov's bureau, but was then transferred to the Yangel bureau by a government/party decree of 15 October 1971. Early work there focused on а nuclear-powered satellite using plasma propulsion, but at the request of "the customer" preference was eventually given to solar arrays (at least in the first stage of the project). The launch vehicle was to be the 11K77 (Zenit). Eventually work on the satellite was transferred back to Kozlov's bureau, but the project was soon mothballed. The book does say that some of the systems ("the TV system, video recorders and optical-electronic units") were used "almost without change" in "other space systems", which are not identified. No name is given to the project in the book. The name Taifun is only linked to the radar calibration satellites.

Offline Stan Black

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2918
  • Liked: 143
  • Likes Given: 109
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #63 on: 02/15/2014 07:55 AM »
                                                      77057                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1970                                                            
121-124   4  11Ф690     11А57       x                     4                                                      
214-224  11  11Ф691     11А57       x                    11                                                      


                                                78014 77024                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1971                                                            
135-145  11  11Ф690     11А57       x               8     3                                                      
235-254  20  11Ф691     11А57       x              11     9                                                      
715-718   4  11Ф692     11А57       x               1     3                                                      


Out of sequence 11Ф690 №78033145

                                                78033 76043                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1972                                                            
156-162   7  11Ф690     11А57       x               5     2                                                      
265-274  10  11Ф691     11А57       x               8     2                                                      
729-739  11  11Ф692     11А57       x               2     9                                                      
825       1  11Ф629     11А511М     x                     1                                                      


Rockets №76043731 and №76043732 prepared as 11А511У
Out of sequence 11Ф692 and 11А57 №78033735
Missing 11Ф692 and 11А57 №7x9


                                                77019 76029                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1973                                                            
173-180   8  11Ф690     11А57       x               6     2                                                      
285-290   6  11Ф691     11А57       x               6                                                            
750-763  14  11Ф692     11А57       x               5     9                                                      
836-838   3  11Ф629     11А511М     x                     3                                                      


Out of sequence 11Ф690 and 11А57 №78031179

                                                78031 76041                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1974                                                            
191-201  11  11Ф690     11А57       x               7     4                                                      
774-793  20  11Ф692     11А57       x               9    11                                                      
849-851   3  11Ф629     11А511У     x                     3                                                      


Out of sequence 11А57 №76041776
11А57 №78031779, №78031780 and №76041783 not used; 11А57 retired in 1976.


                                                77016 78026 76042 77052                                          
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1975        1976                                                
011       1  11Ф635     11А511У     x               1                                                            
212-224  13  11Ф690     11А57       x               8                                                            
             11Ф690     11А511У     11С512                5                                                      
654-675  22  11Ф692     11А57       x               8                                                            
             11Ф692     11А511У     11С514          1    13                                                      
862-864   3  11Ф629     11А511У     x                     3                                                      
958-961   4  11Ф624     11А511У     11С516                2           2                                          


Out of sequence 11Ф690 and 11А57 №76041216
Rockets only 11А511У №78026958 and №77052960
No rocket for 11Ф624 №78026959


                                                76042 77052 78018 76038                                          
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1976        1977                                                
022-023   2  11Ф635     11А511У     x               1     1                                                      
235-244  10  11Ф690     11А511У     11С512          8     2                                                      
686-718  33  11Ф692     11А511У     11С514          5                                                            
             11Ф692М    11А511У     11С514          3    10     7     7                                          
875-876   2  11Ф629     11А511У     x                     2                                                      


Out of sequence 11Ф692 and 11А511У №78026686
Out of sequence 11А511У №78018716


                                                78018 76038                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1977                                                            
034-035   2  11Ф635     11А511У     x               1     1                                                      
105-113   9  11Ф690     11А511У     11С512          6     3                                                      
407       1  11Ф645     11А511У     11С514                1                                                      
817-818   2  11Ф629     11А511У     x                     2                                                      
912-914   3  11Ф624     11А511У     11С516          1     2                                                      


Out of sequence 11А511У №78055817
Rockets only 11А511У №78018912, №76038913 and №76038914


                                                77025 78055                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1978                                                            
046-049   4  11Ф635     11А511У     x               2     2                                                      
124-131   8  11Ф690     11А511У     11С512          5     3                                                      
418-421   4  11Ф645     11А511У     11С514          2     2                                                      
729-738  10  11Ф692М    11А511У     11С514          7     3                                                      
839-840   2  11Ф629     11А511У     x                     2                                                      
925-929   5  11Ф624     11А511У     11С516          2     3                                                      


Out of sequence 11Ф690 and 11А511У №77025131

                                                76047 78017                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1979                                                            
001У      1             11А511УЭ-2  11С514Э-2             1                                                      
060-065   6  11Ф635     11А511У     x               6                                                            
152-154   3  11Ф690     11А511У     11С512          2     1                                                      
442-455  14  11Ф645     11А511У     11С514          5     9                                                      
749       1  11Ф692М    11А511У     11С514          1                                                            
821       1  11Ф629     11А511У     x                     1                                                      
939-944   6  11Ф624     11А511У     11С516          2     4                                                      


Rocket only 11А511У №78017154
Out of sequence 11А511У №78017064
No rocket for 11Ф624 №78017942


                                                77023 76053 78039 77049 76054 77024 78012                        
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1980        1981        1982        1983                        
076-084   9  11Ф635     11А511У     x               1     1     1     1     2     1     2                        
104       1  17Ф41      x           x                     1                                                      
x75-x76   2  11Ф690     11А511У     11С512          2                                                            
466-485  20  11Ф645     11А511У     11С514         10    10                                                      
760       1  11Ф692М    11А511У     11С514                                                                       
802-803   2  11Ф629     11А511У     x               1                 1                                          
975-980   6  11Ф624     11А511У     11С516          3     3                                                      


Rocket only 11А511У №75 and №76 (uncertainty over full serial numbers).
Out of sequence 11Ф692М and 11А511У №76047760; increment of 11 from previous №749 indicates new batch?
No rocket for 17Ф41 №76053104
Rockets only 11А511У №77023976 and №77023977


                                                78039 77049 76054 77024 78012 76032                              
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1981        1982        1983                                    
115-127  13  17Ф41      11А511У     11С514          1     1     3     2     4     2                              
214-217   4  11Ф693     11А511У     11С516          2     2                                                      
416-435  20  11Ф645     11А511У     11С514         11     9                                                      
951-958   8  11Ф624     11А511У     11С516          3     2     2     1                                          


No rocket for 11Ф624 №77049954
No rockets for 17Ф41 №77024121 and №78012124


                                                76054 77024 78012 76032                                          
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1982        1983                                                
248-252   5  11Ф693     11А511У     11С516          1     4                                                      
761-797  37  11Ф645     11А511У     11С514          9    11     7     5                                          
             17Ф116     11А511У     11С514                            5                                          
803-812  10  11Ф695 [П] 11А511У     11С529                1     3     5                                          


Rockets №77024777 and №77024778 prepared as 11А511У-2
Out of sequence 11А511У №78012789
Rockets №76032791 and №76032792 prepared as 11А511У-2
Missing 11Ф693 and 11А511У №804
Out of sequence 11А511У №76032807
Instead of 11Ф695 and 11А511У №809, there is №77046819 indicating part of the following batch? Also hole in sequence is possibly accounted for by early 11Ф695 from KB Arsenal?


                                                78012 76032                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1983                                                            


                                                77046 78056 76021 77011 76048 78028                              
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1984        1985        1986                                    
050-052   3  11Ф635     11А511У     x               2                 1                                          
148-161  14  17Ф41      11А511У     11С514          4     1     4     1     1                                    
             14Ф40      11А511У     11С514                                  1     2                              
204-212   9  11Ф694     11А511У     17С13                 3     1     2     1     2                              
306-337  32  17Ф116     11А511У     11С514          9     9     7     7                                          
445-447   3  11Ф660     11А511У     17С13А                1           2                                          
823-828   6  11Ф695 [П] 11А511У     11С529          3     4                                                      
901-902   2  11Ф695 [А] 11А511У     11С529          1                                                            


Out of sequence 11А511У №76021332
Instead of 11Ф695 and 11А511У №809, there is №77046819 indicating part of this batch? Also hole in sequence is possibly accounted for by early 11Ф695 from KB Arsenal?
11Ф694 №78056206 and №77011208 converted to 17Ф117


                                                76021 77011                                                      
             КА         РН          СЗБ          1985                                                            
003У      1             11А511УЭ-3  11С514Э-3       1                                                            
100       1             11А511У                     1                                                            
836-839   4  11Ф695 [П] 11А511У     11С529          2     2                                                      
913-918   6  11Ф695 [А] 11А511У     11С529          3     3                                                      


11А511У №76032127 refurbished after abort and released as №76021100
Out of sequence 11А511У №77046913, №78056914 and №78056915; possibly accounted for by hole in 800-series?


« Last Edit: 02/19/2014 03:28 PM by Stan Black »

Offline Phillip Clark

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2398
  • Hastings, England
  • Liked: 416
  • Likes Given: 912
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #64 on: 05/06/2014 02:21 PM »
Have the camera systems carried on the Yantar-4K2 and -4K2M (Kobalt and Kobalt-M) series been identified by designator, please?

The Yantar-2K carried the Zhemchug-4 and the -4K1 the Zhemchug-18.
I've always been crazy but it's kept me from going insane - WJ.

Offline Phillip Clark

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2398
  • Hastings, England
  • Liked: 416
  • Likes Given: 912
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #65 on: 05/24/2014 08:35 PM »
Following on from my posting above, I have the following photoreconnaissance camera systems as being used on film-return satellites:

Zenit-2      Ftor-2
Zenit-4      Ftor-4
Zenit-2M      Ftor-2R3
Zenit-4M      Ftor-6

Yantar-2K      Zhemchug-4
Yantar-4K1   Zhemchug-18

Can anyone add to this list for other Zenit and/or Yantar satellites please?   I am - as always - possibly being over-optimistic!

Many thanks.
I've always been crazy but it's kept me from going insane - WJ.

Offline Danderman

  • Extreme Veteran
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 9638
  • Liked: 367
  • Likes Given: 464
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #66 on: 05/25/2014 02:20 PM »
Someone here is trying to sell a Zhemchug 18 camera:

http://www.ss.ua/msg/uk/electronics/photo-optics/objectives/albmg.html
« Last Edit: 05/25/2014 02:22 PM by Danderman »

Offline Phillip Clark

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2398
  • Hastings, England
  • Liked: 416
  • Likes Given: 912
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #67 on: 05/25/2014 02:56 PM »
Someone here is trying to sell a Zhemchug 18 camera:
http://www.ss.ua/msg/uk/electronics/photo-optics/objectives/albmg.html

The implication is that the camera is used on Yantar-4K2 missions as well as 4K1.
I've always been crazy but it's kept me from going insane - WJ.

Offline Stan Black

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2918
  • Liked: 143
  • Likes Given: 109
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #68 on: 08/31/2014 08:48 PM »
Latest spreadsheet of serial numbers

to be updated…

R7B.xlsx (356.55 kB - downloaded 111 times.)
« Last Edit: 07/11/2015 08:51 AM by Stan Black »

Offline Stan Black

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2918
  • Liked: 143
  • Likes Given: 109
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #69 on: 12/29/2014 08:37 PM »
Someone here is trying to sell a Zhemchug 18 camera:
http://www.ss.ua/msg/uk/electronics/photo-optics/objectives/albmg.html

The implication is that the camera is used on Yantar-4K2 missions as well as 4K1.

Not sure of the primary source:-
Quote
В создании ряда изделий 17В320, 17В311, 17В319, 17В39, серии изделий типа «Жемчуг»: Ж-5, Ж-8, Ж-9

Offline Nicolas PILLET

  • Member
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2279
  • Gien, France
    • Kosmonavtika
  • Liked: 434
  • Likes Given: 59
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #70 on: 01/18/2015 07:07 PM »
I publish an interesting video showing the launch preparetion of a Yantar-4KS1M (Nemann, Cosmos 2359). It has an interesting view of the satellite's aft. This is a raw video, but it's a good inside view of a military launch preparation in Baykonur during the 1990's...

http://www.kosmonavtika.com/lancements/1998/25061998/25061998photos.html
Nicolas PILLET
Kosmonavtika : The French site on Russian Space

Offline Nicolas PILLET

  • Member
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2279
  • Gien, France
    • Kosmonavtika
  • Liked: 434
  • Likes Given: 59
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #71 on: 01/18/2015 07:08 PM »
The rear of a Nemann, as you've never seen before ! :D
Nicolas PILLET
Kosmonavtika : The French site on Russian Space

Offline Nicolas PILLET

  • Member
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2279
  • Gien, France
    • Kosmonavtika
  • Liked: 434
  • Likes Given: 59
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #72 on: 01/18/2015 07:11 PM »
By the way, this video gives an answer to this question :

http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=17286.msg1215179#msg1215179
Nicolas PILLET
Kosmonavtika : The French site on Russian Space

Offline Anu

  • Member
  • Member
  • Posts: 82
  • Liked: 4
  • Likes Given: 0
Hoping for some help with ID-ing two particular mission return capsules:

11F692  with an ID number of NЦ 150012

and

11F61 with an ID number of NѢ150008

Having gone through the various tables I think the first would be Cosmos 587 (Zenit 4MK number 12) and the second would be Cosmos 15 (or possibly 13) - either way it's  Zenit 2 number 8 ). Am I correct in thinking that Soviet codes changed during the mid-sixties/early seventies?

Any help greatly appreciated!
« Last Edit: 01/19/2015 04:50 PM by Anu »

Offline Nicolas PILLET

  • Member
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2279
  • Gien, France
    • Kosmonavtika
  • Liked: 434
  • Likes Given: 59
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #74 on: 01/19/2015 05:15 PM »
Hoping for some help with ID-ing two particular mission return capsules:

11F692  with an ID number of NЦ 150012

and

11F61 with an ID number of NѢ150008

Having gone through the various tables I think the first would be Cosmos 587 (Zenit 4MK number 12) and the second would be Cosmos 15 (or possibly 13) - either way it's  Zenit 2 number 8 ). Am I correct in thinking that Soviet codes changed during the mid-sixties/early seventies?

Any help greatly appreciated!

Where did you find these numbers ?

According to my lists, there is no such 11F692, and no such 11F61 :

http://www.kosmonavtika.com/satellites/zenit/liste/11F692.html

http://www.kosmonavtika.com/satellites/zenit/liste/11F61.html
Nicolas PILLET
Kosmonavtika : The French site on Russian Space

Offline Anu

  • Member
  • Member
  • Posts: 82
  • Liked: 4
  • Likes Given: 0
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #75 on: 01/19/2015 05:30 PM »
These are numbers on the sides of components....so I assumed that ,in the letters and numeric codes, the last two digits referred to the vehicle number with the first letters and digits giving details about the factory and/or year of manufacture. From this I cross-correlated with your lists and others. Am I wrong in my assumptions about the product codes for components and how they relate to actual missions on which the components were installed? Many thanks for your time and advice!

Offline Nicolas PILLET

  • Member
  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2279
  • Gien, France
    • Kosmonavtika
  • Liked: 434
  • Likes Given: 59
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #76 on: 01/19/2015 05:31 PM »
These are numbers on the sides of components....so I assumed that ,in the letters and numeric codes, the last two digits referred to the vehicle number with the first letters and digits giving details about the factory and/or year of manufacture. From this I cross-correlated with your lists and others. Am I wrong in my assumptions about the product codes for components and how they relate to actual missions on which the components were installed? Many thanks for your time and advice!

No no, you're perfectly right ! What is disturbing is that your "components" should not exist ! :D

You have pictures of them ?
Nicolas PILLET
Kosmonavtika : The French site on Russian Space

Offline Anu

  • Member
  • Member
  • Posts: 82
  • Liked: 4
  • Likes Given: 0
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #77 on: 01/19/2015 06:43 PM »
I saw them at a space auction (with certificates of authenticity) and was intrigued as to whether they were real- so wrote down the numbers out of curiosity! I know there are many fakes and so decided to try to learn a little more about the Soviet programme (about which I know very little) in figuring out the coding. From my understanding, all of these capsules.....up to and including Foton, of which I have seen a biological carrier used by ESA at ESTEC.....are derived from the Vostok design- I think.

Offline Stan Black

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2918
  • Liked: 143
  • Likes Given: 109
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #78 on: 01/19/2015 06:43 PM »
Hoping for some help with ID-ing two particular mission return capsules:

11F692  with an ID number of NЦ 150012

and

11F61 with an ID number of NѢ150008

Having gone through the various tables I think the first would be Cosmos 587 (Zenit 4MK number 12) and the second would be Cosmos 15 (or possibly 13) - either way it's  Zenit 2 number 8 ). Am I correct in thinking that Soviet codes changed during the mid-sixties/early seventies?

Any help greatly appreciated!

N is for number

Then follows Ц for the batch production year.
http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=17286.msg490372#msg490372

15001 is for the factory, also 15000 and 15002…

Offline Phillip Clark

  • Senior Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2398
  • Hastings, England
  • Liked: 416
  • Likes Given: 912
Re: The Soviet / Russian film-return reconnaissance satellites
« Reply #79 on: 03/18/2015 02:29 PM »
There used to be a thread on here which was specifically discussing the use of solid-propellant retrorockets in the Zenit photoreconnaissance programme, but that seems to have got transferred to the L2 section for some unknown reason (couldn't L2 have started its own thread?).

At some point during the Zenit programme the Soviets switched from using the liquid-propellant TDU-1/8D66/S5.4 engine for de-orbit burns to using a solid-propellant engine.   The Zenit-2 and Zenit-4 programmes used the TDU-1, although one satellite - Cosmos 69, I think - was reported to have flown with a solid-propellant motor, probably as a proof-of-concept.

It appears that the main switch to using a solid-propellant motor for de-orbit came with the Zenit-4M satellites (Cosmos 251 was the first) which carried a rear solid motor in place of the the TDU-1 and then atop the descent module there was a liquid-propellant motor which performed the orbital manoeuvres.   

I have seen the designator 11D82M used for the solid-propellant motors but I would have expected that there would have been more than a single type of engine used as the programmes switched from Zenit-4M and associated satellites to Zenit-6U and Zenit-8 and their relatives like the Resurs-F missions.   Is there any more information concerning these solid-propellant motors "out there", please?

There is the question of whether the Zenit-2M series used the solid or liquid propellant retrorocket system - I don't think it was finally decided upon in the thread that now hides behind L2.

I have also seen the designator S5.120 used for the liquid-propellant in-orbit manoeuvring engines, but again I would have assumed that at least two, probably more, different engines had been used over the years.   The few representations of Zenit-4M which have been published by Progress suggest that the satellite used a stubbier manoeuvring engine than was seen on the Resurs-F series.   So I am assuming that S5.120 refers to only one of the series of manoeuvring engines - maybe the ones used on Zenits-6U, Zenit-8 and the Resurs-F series, while a different designator engine was used on the Zenit-4M and its derivatives.

A book from the 1990s gave the following information for the Resurs-F1 "KDU" (no number or other designator given):

Thrust, tonnes                              3.00
            kN                                     2.943

Pulse for a single burn
        minimum, Ns                         1,375
        maximum, Ns                        716,000

Exhaust velocity, m/s                    2,843

Specific impulse, sec                     290

Burn time, sec                               26 (with maximum thrust, single burn)

Maximum number of ignitions       20

Propellant mass, kg                      268.8
    oxidiser, kg                               179.2
    fuel, kg                                     89.6

Structure mass, kg                       140

I would be fascinated if there was some more information around - designators or performance figures - for the various solid and liquid-propellant engines used on the Zenit programme.
I've always been crazy but it's kept me from going insane - WJ.

Tags: