Author Topic: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation  (Read 6704 times)

Offline Borklund

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #20 on: 10/11/2016 01:32 AM »
I'm not sure if this study has been already posted:

"Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction" (http://www.nature.com/articles/srep34774).

Rodents were irradiated with simulated cosmic radiation for 12 and 24 weeks. Radiation caused brain damage and increased neuroinflammation that persisted 6 months after exposure. Effects included memory loss and anxiety.

Excerpt:

"The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space."

IMHO that means that any BEO missions lasting longer than a week or so must have some form of radiation shielding. Just turning the ship's engine bay towards the Sun in the event of solar flare (as Musk said at the IAC event) is not going to cut it.
The crew is not directly behind just the engines, but that's besides the point.

"While carefully controlled terrestrial based experimentation has elucidated a number of potential mechanisms responsible for chronic CNS effects, realistic limitations related to cosmic radiation simulations on Earth and the extrapolation of rodent based behavioral studies to the neurocognitive functionality of astronauts is not without caveats. "

"Our exploration of strange new worlds should not be hampered by the fear of cosmic radiation exposure, but rather, inspire robust efforts to advance our understanding of a previously unrecognized problem."

More research is definitely needed!
« Last Edit: 10/11/2016 01:32 AM by Borklund »

Offline Robotbeat

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #21 on: 10/24/2016 01:35 AM »
I'm not sure if this study has been already posted:

"Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction" (http://www.nature.com/articles/srep34774).

Rodents were irradiated with simulated cosmic radiation for 12 and 24 weeks. Radiation caused brain damage and increased neuroinflammation that persisted 6 months after exposure. Effects included memory loss and anxiety.

Excerpt:

"The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space."

IMHO that means that any BEO missions lasting longer than a week or so must have some form of radiation shielding. Just turning the ship's engine bay towards the Sun in the event of solar flare (as Musk said at the IAC event) is not going to cut it.
This was discuessed elsewhere. They used a total dose FAR greater than astronauts would receive in the same time period, orders of magnitude more. So the results are invalid. The fact that they didn't clearly put this upfront and didn't focus on this during their conclusions and results means the paper should be either retracted or amended.
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Offline CyndyC

Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #22 on: 10/26/2016 08:54 PM »
No one has mentioned the shifting in the flow of body fluids that has caused vision changes and intracranial pressure in more than half of American astronauts. The actual shape of the eyeball changes. The Russians have a lower body negative pressure suit on the ISS being used as an experimental preventive measure.

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/fluid_shifts
Quote
The human body is approximately 60 percent fluids. During spaceflight, these fluids shift to the upper body and move across blood vessel and cell membranes differently than they normally do on Earth...... a pattern NASA calls visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome, or VIIP. It involves changes in vision and the structure of the eyes and indirect signs of increased pressure in the brain.....
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Offline sanman

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #23 on: 02/02/2017 10:34 AM »
Space changes the shape of your brain too, apparently:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4181448/Prolonged-spaceflight-changes-shape-brain.html


Additionally, it seems to even subtly affect DNA in ways that can matter a lot:

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/01/31/going-into-space-affects-dna-astronaut-twins/97295132/


Does this once again point to the need for artificial gravity, or rather to just make spaceflight a quicker/briefer experience?


Or is it possible that toughing it out in space will lead humans to develop genetic adaptations - aka. Homo Spaciens?
« Last Edit: 02/02/2017 10:45 AM by sanman »

Offline AncientU

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #24 on: 02/02/2017 12:32 PM »
The real question is whether there is a threshold acceleration and how are effects related to amount of gravity present (linear, exponential, something more complex).  A one-sixth g station on the Moon could tell us bunches about living on Mars (at 0.38g).  An orbital artificial gravity facility could study the relationship from zero up to >one g*, but having another data point at Lunar gravity which brackets the Mars situation is vastly superior to having a single point at zero g.

Being optimistic, it is possible that 0.38g is much more similar to Earth's acceleration than it is to zero g (i.e., the health effects are minimal).  Most seem to assume the more pessimistic... anything less than one g is a health hazard.

* At the cost of a couple decades of experimentation and $$Billions.
« Last Edit: 02/02/2017 12:40 PM by AncientU »
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Offline gospacex

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #25 on: 02/02/2017 12:47 PM »
Does this once again point to the need for artificial gravity, or rather to just make spaceflight a quicker/briefer experience?

This points to the need to have much more study.

Quote
is it possible that toughing it out in space will lead humans to develop genetic adaptations - aka. Homo Spaciens?

Advances in gene manipulation are inevitable: there are people with genetic diseases, predispositions to have some diseases because of some genes not working properly, thus the research on how to correct genome is guaranteed to be funded regardless of space program. And correcting genome = changing genome. Much further down the road, say 300 years, and you can dial yourself new genes to have x100 resistance to cancer. Or a set of wings...
« Last Edit: 02/02/2017 12:48 PM by gospacex »

Offline AncientU

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #26 on: 02/02/2017 12:51 PM »
You underestimate the complexity of hacking wetware.
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Offline AncientU

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #27 on: 02/02/2017 01:15 PM »
Space changes the shape of your brain too, apparently:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4181448/Prolonged-spaceflight-changes-shape-brain.html


Additionally, it seems to even subtly affect DNA in ways that can matter a lot:

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/01/31/going-into-space-affects-dna-astronaut-twins/97295132/


Does this once again point to the need for artificial gravity, or rather to just make spaceflight a quicker/briefer experience?


Or is it possible that toughing it out in space will lead humans to develop genetic adaptations - aka. Homo Spaciens?

Quote
- Scott's telomeres on the ends of his chromosomes in his white blood cells lengthened while in space.

Lengthening the telomeres is actually beneficial... one aging effect is being offset. 
All changes are not necessarily harmful.
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Offline sanman

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #28 on: 02/04/2017 08:06 AM »
Lengthening the telomeres is actually beneficial... one aging effect is being offset. 
All changes are not necessarily harmful.

Hopefully it is - though perhaps not if you're at risk for cancer. That Hayflick limit from the telomeres is supposed to prevent runaway multiplication of cells in a cancer situation, although as you say, this can limit our lifespan in other ways.

Offline john smith 19

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #29 on: 02/13/2017 04:18 PM »
A new paper was published on Lithium Hydride deep space radiation mitigation:
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160003084&hterms=deep+space+habitat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchallany%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ns%3DPublication-Date%7C1%26N%3D0%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Bspace%2Bhabitat

basically, Lithium Hydride does a substantially better job then HDPE and has a density half that of Aluminum.
HDPE has a density of 0.97g/cm^3 while Lithium Hydride has a density between 0.54 and 0.57 g/cm^3.  this is a very good finding.
Just a not this is not just using LiH itself. It's using it as a GH2 store, like the plan for Hydrogen vehicles as an interstitial absorbent.
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Online envy887

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #30 on: 02/17/2017 03:16 AM »
I'm not sure if this study has been already posted:

"Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction" (http://www.nature.com/articles/srep34774).

Rodents were irradiated with simulated cosmic radiation for 12 and 24 weeks. Radiation caused brain damage and increased neuroinflammation that persisted 6 months after exposure. Effects included memory loss and anxiety.

Excerpt:

"The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space."

IMHO that means that any BEO missions lasting longer than a week or so must have some form of radiation shielding. Just turning the ship's engine bay towards the Sun in the event of solar flare (as Musk said at the IAC event) is not going to cut it.

That study radiated the mice at 50 to 250 cGy per minute. Astronauts with minimal shielding will get about 1.5 cGy per YEAR in deep space.

That's like smashing the mouse skull with a hammer and saying "hey look, its cognitive function is impaired!!!". Well, duh.

Offline spacester

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #31 on: 04/14/2017 11:17 PM »
We are not going to be able to call ourselves a space-faring species until  we have gained life science knowledge from living in alternate gravity fields.

We have a beautiful, natural 1/6 G field on the moon, and a spin-gravity ship just isn't that crazy of an idea with 2020 right around the corner.

At 3 rpm, Coriolis forces can be expected to be noticeable but easily tolerable.

As it turns out, it is also true that at 3 rpm the fraction of 1 G is equal to the spin radius in meters.

So build a ship with a 100 meter radius, spin it at 3 rpm, and let's start doing life science in the kinds of gravity environments thay our space-faring descendents will almost certainly be living in.

People say there's nothing to do on the moon, yet we have done next to zero life science there.

Offline lcasv

Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #32 on: 04/28/2017 03:22 PM »
Our effort must be oriented to get artificial gravity. check this proposal.

Offline Hog

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Re: Health Risks in Space and Mitigation
« Reply #33 on: 04/29/2017 08:48 AM »
Isnt there an ISS section for inducing artificial gravity laying around somewhere?
Paul

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