Author Topic: Theoretical FTL  (Read 39157 times)

Offline alexw

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #60 on: 12/07/2011 03:04 AM »
I recall a lot of "speculative-fiction" about anti-matter when it was first discovered/postulated, much of it dealing with the concepts and ideas of what-and-how "contra-terrene" ...
     You do? That was 1928-1932. How much speculative fiction was written at the time, and were you born circa 1910?
    -Alex

Offline RanulfC

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #61 on: 12/07/2011 01:04 PM »
I recall a lot of "speculative-fiction" about anti-matter when it was first discovered/postulated, much of it dealing with the concepts and ideas of what-and-how "contra-terrene" ...
     You do? That was 1928-1932. How much speculative fiction was written at the time, and were you born circa 1910?
    -Alex
Why yes "I do" it's called a "small-town-library" and a good majority of the "Science Fiction" section dated from that period yes :)

But the majority of the stuff I'm thinking of was written around the mid-to-late 40s and beyond.
http://beamjockey.livejournal.com/73304.html

SeeTee-CT-ContraTerrene Matter :)

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Offline JohnFornaro

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #62 on: 12/07/2011 02:01 PM »
Dang.  Foiled again!
Sometimes I just flat out don't get it.

Offline colbourne

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #63 on: 12/21/2016 02:55 AM »
http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/scientists-measure-antimatter-atom-for-1st-time-1.3903268

"The next phase of the group's experiment, ALPHA-G, will study gravitational forces on antihydrogen, and is expected to take place at the end of 2017. Specifically, the researchers want to see if antihydrogen will "fall up," suggesting that the two repel each other. If it does — which Menary is somewhat skeptical about — it could mean that half the galaxies we see are antimatter galaxies.

The physicists hope that eventually their experiments will provide scientists with yet another piece in the puzzle as to how our universe came to be."

So we should find out whether this will work within a couple of years. As a means of transport I think it is unlikely to ever be of use but it may have potential for use in communications.

Offline Stormbringer

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #64 on: 12/21/2016 03:01 AM »
there is more articles today related to the above article topic. They have measured the emission spectra for the s1 to p something or the other transition of anti-hydrogen. it is pretty close to the measured spectra for regular hydrogen with the remainder probably down to measurement precision.
When antigravity is outlawed only outlaws will have antigravity.

Offline colbourne

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #65 on: 02/02/2017 04:12 AM »
http://newatlas.com/dipole-repeller-void-pushing-milky-way/47648/?utm_source=Gizmag+Subscribers&utm_campaign=3a3d9a1e90-UA-2235360-4&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_65b67362bd-3a3d9a1e90-90223594


Enormous extragalactic void is pushing on the Milky Way. Astronomers have now discovered a huge extragalactic void, called the Dipole Repeller, that's pushing us away.

Offline aceshigh

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #66 on: 03/23/2017 08:16 PM »

Offline dustinthewind

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #67 on: 03/24/2017 12:30 AM »
http://newatlas.com/dipole-repeller-void-pushing-milky-way/47648/?utm_source=Gizmag+Subscribers&utm_campaign=3a3d9a1e90-UA-2235360-4&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_65b67362bd-3a3d9a1e90-90223594


Enormous extragalactic void is pushing on the Milky Way. Astronomers have now discovered a huge extragalactic void, called the Dipole Repeller, that's pushing us away.

I think it might be possible that the dark voids are another universe where gravitational objects what pull in their space expel it out into our universe.  We experience the gravity of this other universe as negative gravity.  This universe may have an excess of anti-matter rather than matter.  Anti-matter possibly being negative energy matter but its time runs backwards.  Negative energy matter already behaves as if its time arrow is backward so reversing time for it makes it behave as if its time arrow runs forward. 

Gravity appears to contract space into it pulling in whats around it.  Think of it as a Lorentz contraction in an accelerating frame.  So if space flows in where does it go?  Into the other universe maybe.  How does their universe perceive our gravity.  As repulsive possibly or as space flowing out which is repulsive to the matter in the other universe as well.  So they perceive us as dark matter and maybe we perceive them as dark matter.  That is they expel space from their dimension into ours and also appear repulsive.  Dipole repulsers.  The only thing different in this universe is because of the dominance of anti-matter time generally runs in reverse but its not a problem because all the matter is negative energy matter so it just behaves like normal matter in reverse time. 

Anyways just some speculation on my part.  Thought you all might find it interesting. 

Offline Spaniard

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #68 on: 04/05/2017 07:45 AM »
Assuming that antimatter generates antigravity, I think that there is some bad concepts around it. It's not that antimatter was repealed by gravity. It was that antimatter would generate a negative space curvature.
So, the answers to your questions will be the same that the standard model.

It will change other things. For example, photons shouldn't generate space curvature/gravity (never tested as you need a enormous quantity of photons in a small place to "weight" something).
Antimatter would be generate negative curvature, so it will never form planets or stars. Most antimatter would be in intergalactic space. It would generate negative pressure on galaxies.


Offline dustinthewind

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #69 on: 04/10/2017 01:07 AM »
Assuming that antimatter generates antigravity, I think that there is some bad concepts around it. It's not that antimatter was repealed by gravity. It was that antimatter would generate a negative space curvature.
So, the answers to your questions will be the same that the standard model.

It will change other things. For example, photons shouldn't generate space curvature/gravity (never tested as you need a enormous quantity of photons in a small place to "weight" something).
Antimatter would be generate negative curvature, so it will never form planets or stars. Most antimatter would be in intergalactic space. It would generate negative pressure on galaxies.

No, it is believed anti-matter generates normal gravity as far as I know.  It also takes positive energy to make anti-matter.  What I was speculating is that anti-matter is negative energy in reverse time which makes it behave like normal matter but when it comes into contact with normal matter the time and then energy cancel out inducing a wave in the vacuum which carries the effective mass elsewhere.  This being why when an electron and positron annihilate their mass isn't lost.  It is carried off in the light which is the result of the annihilation. 

The negative gravity speculation was just that, but speculating that dark matter is actually matter in a parallel dimension much like our own.  In this other dimension time runs backward and most matter that exist is anti-matter.  My speculation tries to answer the question - "where did all the anti-matter go?"  You see when we create matter - particles we always create equal amounts of matter+anti-matter.  So where did all this matter come from and where is all the anti-matter.  My speculation indicates maybe it is in a parallel dimension where time is running in reverse and it is considered dark matter to our dimension where it expels space into our dimension. 

Offline MrHollifield

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #70 on: 05/04/2017 07:55 PM »
I think it might be possible that the dark voids are another universe where gravitational objects what pull in their space expel it out into our universe.

...

Gravity appears to contract space into it pulling in whats around it.

AIUI, gravity is our experience of spacetime contracted by the creation of matter from energy. When the energy in that matter is released, say during fusion in a star, spacetime expands outward, reducing the gravitation of the star. In the dark voids, there are no stars releasing energy, so there could be no expansion generated in the voids. More likely, the spacetime expanding out of the luminous regions with many stars is pushing against these voids to expand the universe.

Offline Bob012345

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #71 on: 05/08/2017 02:30 PM »
Assuming that antimatter generates antigravity, I think that there is some bad concepts around it. It's not that antimatter was repealed by gravity. It was that antimatter would generate a negative space curvature.
So, the answers to your questions will be the same that the standard model.

It will change other things. For example, photons shouldn't generate space curvature/gravity (never tested as you need a enormous quantity of photons in a small place to "weight" something).
Antimatter would be generate negative curvature, so it will never form planets or stars. Most antimatter would be in intergalactic space. It would generate negative pressure on galaxies.

No, it is believed anti-matter generates normal gravity as far as I know.  It also takes positive energy to make anti-matter.  What I was speculating is that anti-matter is negative energy in reverse time which makes it behave like normal matter but when it comes into contact with normal matter the time and then energy cancel out inducing a wave in the vacuum which carries the effective mass elsewhere.  This being why when an electron and positron annihilate their mass isn't lost.  It is carried off in the light which is the result of the annihilation. 

The negative gravity speculation was just that, but speculating that dark matter is actually matter in a parallel dimension much like our own.  In this other dimension time runs backward and most matter that exist is anti-matter.  My speculation tries to answer the question - "where did all the anti-matter go?"  You see when we create matter - particles we always create equal amounts of matter+anti-matter.  So where did all this matter come from and where is all the anti-matter.  My speculation indicates maybe it is in a parallel dimension where time is running in reverse and it is considered dark matter to our dimension where it expels space into our dimension.


Some think that electrons actually are not affected by gravity. The paper below measures gravitational force as 0.09mg. The authors though interpret that there is an induced electromagnetic force in the apparatus that counters gravity but others disagree with that interpretation.

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.19.1049


Offline flux_capacitor

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #72 on: 07/12/2017 10:31 PM »
The negative gravity speculation was just that, but speculating that dark matter is actually matter in a parallel dimension much like our own.  In this other dimension time runs backward and most matter that exist is anti-matter.  My speculation tries to answer the question - "where did all the anti-matter go?"  You see when we create matter - particles we always create equal amounts of matter+anti-matter.  So where did all this matter come from and where is all the anti-matter.  My speculation indicates maybe it is in a parallel dimension where time is running in reverse and it is considered dark matter to our dimension where it expels space into our dimension.

Good catch! In the next posts I will detail this idea of primordial antimatter lacking, parallel universes and negative gravity in cosmology. A cosmological model exists, exactly behaving how you said, and has been published though peer review with recent (2014-2015) progress.

In a first post I will talk of the basis of negative mass in group theory, general relativity and quantum field theory, and the problems it brings in the current formulations of those theories.

In a second post I will talk of the application of such negative mass to a cosmological model based on general relativity but without such paradox

In a third post I will talk about the apparent FTL travel such a cosmological model allows.

With links to PDF files of all references to back up the presentation.

Offline flux_capacitor

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #73 on: 07/12/2017 10:40 PM »
The problem of negative mass in cosmology

Physics is like a cake:



1st floor: observations, experiments
2nd floor: differential equations
3rd floor: geometry
4th floor: group theory

Groups rule geometry, which fathers differential equations. With differential equations we build things, which then are used to explain or predict what we call physical facts.

Dynamical groups show there are not only two types of matters (matter and antimatter) but 4 types, according to the direction of their arrow of time:

- positive mass particles (the matter we are made of)
- positive mass antiparticles, C-symmetry of our matter: this is the antimatter after Dirac
- negative mass particles, CPT-symmetry of our matter
- negative mass antiparticles, C×CPT = PT-symmetry of our matter: this is the antimatter conjectured by Feynman as a "(parity) mirrored particle going backwards in time"

The antimatter that is produced in lab will "fall down" like normal matter because it is made of antiparticles, i.e. positive mass matter after a charge conjugation transformation.

The baryon asymmetry of the universe, due to CP violation that occurred during baryogenesis, i.e. the lack of primordial antimatter in the universe, was addressed by Andrei Sakharov in 1967. Sakharov realized a complete CPT symmetry between two spacetimes with two opposite arrows of time, that originated from the same Big Bang singularity and where opposite CP violations occurred. [1]

Julian Barbour et al. (with gravity) and Sean Carroll et al. (with thermodynamics) have shown the same thing with simulations, that two universes with an opposite arrow of time would indeed originate from the same Big Bang singularity, the direction of the time arrow being identified with entropy. [2] [3]

Dynamical groups (coadjoint action of the Poincaré group on its moment map) proves that reversing the arrow of time of a particle (T symmetry) is the same thing as reversing its energy sign, and its mass if it owns one, due to Einstein's mass-energy equivalence principle E=mc2. See [4]

The "antichron" components of the Poincaré group, describing negative energy particles, is not used in physics, mainly because:
- General relativity does not seriously consider the reality of negative mass particles, mostly due to the preposterous runaway paradox. [5] [6]
- Quantum Field Theory prevents any negative energy, on the axiom that no state could exist with an energy less than the vacuum state, so that Weinberg even wrote "we are forced to conclude that T is antilinear and antiunitary". [7]

But this axiom was stated before the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. [8] We are even now in a "dark-energy-dominated era". Since such an acceleration implies the action of a negative pressure, and since a pressure is a density of energy (per unit of volume), this question should be reconsidered. The Casimir effect also shows some negative energy state.

So if the T operator is considered as unitary and linear, then QFT enables the existence of negative energy states, time inversion being synonymous of energy inversion. This is already the case with dynamical group theory, build with real coefficients. [4]

What about the runaway paradox? It arises when both positive energy and negative energy particles are considered to be real in general relativity, and they meet each others. When such particles of opposite signs evolve along the same set of geodesics, produced by a metric, solution of Einstein's field equations, then the Newtonian approximation gives a weird runaway motion: the positive mass particle accelerates away, repelled by the negative one; but the negative mass particle, attracted by the positive mass, chases it.




The couple then uniformly accelerate, while the energy is conserved.

William Bonnor wrote, about this runaway motion: [6]

Quote from: William Bonnor
I regard the runaway (or self-accelerating) motion […] so preposterous that I prefer to rule it out by supposing that inertial mass is all positive or all negative.

So, are negative masses discarded from general relativity and cosmology forever?





References

[1] Sakharov, A. D. (1967). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe". JETP Letters. 5 (1): 24–26.

[2] 2017: Physicists Propose a Mirror Universe Where Time Moves in the Opposite Direction

[3] Barbour, J.; Koslowski, T.; Mercati, F. (2014). "Identification of a Gravitational Arrow of Time". Physical Review Letters. 113, 181101. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.181101.

[4] Souriau, J.-M. (1997). "A mechanistic description of elementary particles: Inversions of space and time". Structure of Dynamical Systems. Boston: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-1-4612-6692-1. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-0281-3_14.

[5] Bondi, H. (1957). "Negative Mass in General Relativity". Reviews of Modern Physics. 29 (3): 423–428. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.29.423.

[6] Bonnor, W. B. (1989). "Negative mass in general relativity". General Relativity and Gravitation. 21 (11): 1143–1157. doi:10.1007/BF00763458.

[7] Weinberg, S. (2005): "Space Inversion and Time Reversal" p.76 in The Quantum Theory of Fields, Volume 1: Foundations, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521670531.

[8] The Nobel prize in physics 2011
« Last Edit: 07/17/2017 10:12 AM by flux_capacitor »

Offline flux_capacitor

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #74 on: 07/12/2017 10:51 PM »
A cosmological model with negative mass and no paradox

Things go very differently if the universe is described not by one set of geodesics, but two sets, each sector being the place where each species (positive or negative masses) belong. Those two sets of geodesics are described by two metrics g+ (positive sector) and g- (negative sector) solutions of two coupled field equations:





The Newtonian approximation this time provides the following laws of motion:

- particles whose masses are of the same sign mutually attract according to Newton's law
  (negative mass attracts negative mass and positive mass attracts positive mass)

- particles of opposite masses mutually repel according to "anti" Newton's law
  (negative mass and positive mass repel each other)

The runaway paradox disappears. [9]

This is the same as the previous twin, shadow or mirror universes of Sakharov, Salam/Schwarz/Green, Foot/Volkas, Hossenfelder, Barbour/Koslowski/Mercati, Carroll/Chen/Guth… except for the first time integrating Souriau's idea that time reversal generates energy and mass inversion, hence involving a gravitational interaction between particles populating the two opposite sectors.

By the way, thanks to the introduction of negative mass in cosmology, the Janus Cosmological Model (JCM) naturally explains many observational facts, such as :
- the homogeneity of the primitive universe
- the small inhomogeneities in the CMB
- the lack of primordial antimatter
- the primordial dwarf galaxies and the age of the universe
- the accelerating expansion of the universe
- the galaxy rotation curves
- the very large structure
- the dipole repeller
- the various voids and supervoids

Adding negative energy in cosmology is a big paradigm shift. The addition of a second metric with two coupled field equations could be seen as a lack of parsimony according to Occam's razor, but let's consider the following:

Describing the universe, adding more than one metric to one M4 manifold may seem difficult to some cosmologists, but not at all for mathematicians and geometers. General relativity is geometric in nature.

JCM does not have to rely on had hoc parameters to fit with observational data, unlike the standard ΛCDM (lambda-cold dark matter) "concordance" model and its… six free parameters.

JCM does not need cosmic inflation and inflatons.

JCM does not need to rely on some dark energy to explain the expansion of the universe, unlike the ΛCDM model. The negative energy density of the particles populating the other sector gives and antigravitational effect globally pushing and accelerating the expansion of our positive sector forward.

JCM does not have to rely on invisible dark matter of unknown nature, unlike the ΛCDM model. The same effects are produced by the particles populating the negative sector, of known nature: those particles are the same as ours but with a negative mass, i.e. negative mass baryons and anti-baryons made of negative mass quarks and antiquarks.

JCM does not modifies Newton's law with distance, unlike MOND and subsequent emergent gravity theories.

JCM is plain-vanilla GR, unlike MiHsC for example, which relies on quantum Unruh waves and a hypothesis about a cosmic-scale Casimir effect.




About the apparent absence of the primordial antimatter and the true nature of the negative mass in the negative sector



BARYON ASYMMETRY OF THE UNIVERSE AFTER SAKHAROV
LEFT: positive energy species | RIGHT: negative energy species
A: Primitive universe, 4 components: positive energy quarks and antiquarks; and negative energy quarks and antiquarks.
B: They combine to give more positive mass matter (red) than positive mass antimatter (blue) due to CP violation in the 1st sector; and more negative mass antimatter (purple) than negative mass matter (green) due to opposite CP violation in the 2nd sector.
C: Positive energy quarks and antiquarks stop combining and positive mass matter and antimatter annihilate each other in the first sector. Same thing in the 2nd sector for negative mass matter and antimatter.
D: In the 1st sector, positive energy photons remain from positive mass matter-antimatter annihilation, leaving a remnant of positive mass matter and positive energy antiquarks. In the 2nd sector, negative energy photons remain from negative mass matter-antimatter annihilation, leaving a remnant of negative mass antimatter and negative mass quarks.

This answers the question "where did the primordial antimatter go?"

The primordial negative mass antimatter (PT symmetry of our positive mass matter) is still "there" but being invisible, as it emits negative energy photons our telescopes cannot see, since such negative energy photons follow the null-geodesics of the metric g(-) of the negative sector.

But the density of this negative mass primordial antimatter completely leads the (accelerating) cosmic expansion process, as well as the formation and confinement of galaxies and galaxy clusters in our positive energy sector.




Those two posts about the Janus cosmological model has put the basis to talk about the possibility of FTL interstellar travel.




References

[9] Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (2014). "Negative mass hypothesis in cosmology and the nature of dark energy". Astrophysics and Space Science. 354. doi:10.1007/s10509-014-2106-5.
« Last Edit: 07/17/2017 01:53 PM by flux_capacitor »

Offline flux_capacitor

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #75 on: 07/12/2017 10:58 PM »
Apparent FTL interstellar travel

Finally, the model allows –apparent– FTL interstellar travel with limited time and energy, through a mass-inversion process. [10]

About how a spaceship could make a technological hyperspace transfer, I already briefly talked about such possibility in a post in the EmDrive thread 9:
https://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=41732.msg1632005#msg1632005

After mass inversion of its constituting particles, the spaceship would follow the geodesics of the metric g(-) in the negative sector. Yet the negative sector has a speed of light c(-) higher and distances shorter than in the positive sector.

Indeed with two metrics instead of one, between two distinct points there are two different distances. It depends what metric you use to measure length:


                                            A 2D surface with two different scales


Due to such trick with spacetimes, distances to cover are shorter, while the limit of the speed of light is now higher. But we are still talking about great distances. How to accelerate? What kind of engine our spaceship could use in the negative sector?


The Gulliver effect

Icing on the cake: perhaps the craft would not even have to use an engine for such a trip. It would appear in the negative sector at a relativistic speed v where
c(+) < v < c(-) [11] ← See part 4: "Back to the Problem of Interstellar Travel" page 11–14 of this reference for the part about FTL travel.

The size of a particle, its spatial extension, can be represented by the Compton wavelength:

Compton wavelength associated to a mass, for example a proton.

But a positive particle, after a hyperspace transfer in the negative sector (which is a "smaller space" due to the difference in the two space scale factors a(−) < a(+)) will appear larger than similar negative species around:

                                "Gulliver effect"

This variation in size is the sign of some energy loss. Hyperspace transfer will maybe one day be mathematically modeled. More precisely, quantum physics should be involved besides general relativity. If we look at the Einstein field equationns (EFE) the divergenceless hypothesis is equivalent to the conservation of energy-matter. This conservation of energy can also be "read" in the EFE in the form of

S = c T

where S is the metric (geometric) tensor, c the speed of light, and T the stress-energy tensor.

Now, if we look at two coupled field equations:

S = c ( T - T* )    and    S* = c ( T* - T )

the divergenceless hypothesis corresponds to the conservation of energy-matter over the two sectors, even during and after hyperspace transfer. Then we could derive some idea from this concept of energy-matter conservation. How to transfer a particle towards a "smaller" sector (whose gauge factor R is smaller) preserving its energy-matter?

This is possible if the wavelength is shortened thanks to Lorentz contraction, i.e. if the particle materializes in the negative sector at a relativistic velocity.

How to give all particles of the craft (and its passengers) the same velocity vector? There is no known answer to this question. Maybe aligning the spins of all particles before the mass inversion process.

Otherwise, if particles of the ship and its passengers all appear in the negative fold at a relativistic velocity but with random velocity vector orientations, I let you imagine the trip will finish way sooner than expected…

After mass inversion, a craft would go so fast that it could not slow down. But, arriving at its destination, a new mass inversion towards the positive sector would give it again its former slower (non relativistic) kinetic parameters, without deceleration.

If this idea is valid, a spaceship could jump into the negative sector and appear there at a relativistic velocity, without any acceleration. The journey duration would not be zero, but possibly greatly shortened. Perhaps some stars and their planetary systems, 10 or 100 lightyears away, could be reached in less than a year.




References

[10] Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (2015). "Cancellation of the singularity of the Schwarzschild solution with natural mass inversion process". Modern Physics Letters A. 30 (9): 1550051. doi:10.1142/S0217732315500510.

[11] Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (2014). "Cosmological bimetric model with interacting positive and negative masses and two different speeds of light, in agreement with the observed acceleration of the Universe". Modern Physics Letters A. 29 (34): 1450182. doi:10.1142/S021773231450182X.

[12] Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (2015). "Lagrangian derivation of the two coupled field equations in the Janus cosmological model". Astrophysics and Space Science. 357 (67). doi:10.1007/s10509-015-2250-6.
« Last Edit: 07/15/2017 12:01 AM by flux_capacitor »

Offline dustinthewind

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #76 on: 07/13/2017 12:32 AM »
...

Thanks flux.  I had no idea they already had a working model of such a system. 

Offline flux_capacitor

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #77 on: 07/13/2017 01:28 AM »
...

Thanks flux.  I had no idea they already had a working model of such a system.

The first basis of the model goes back as soon as 1977 (Newtonian dynamics at that time) so it is has been an ongoing work for forty years… Few papers published, but good progress has been made recently with group theory.

The author is a French physicist, that's why the model is never advertised in the US media, contrary to much weaker works, for example the thermodynamic T-symmetry model of Sean Carroll and Allan Guth that is not even published through peer review. Or the mirror universes with opposite arrow of time of Julian Barbour et al. which consist of a computer simulation of only 1,000 mass-points in two populations… that does not even interact! Yet the media publish attractive cover magazines with beautiful CGI pictures and clickbait titles online about such interesting but somewhat limited and crude ideas, labelling them as "a new revolution" every few couples of years. Sigh…

Petit seems also blacklisted from the French community of astrophysicists and cosmologists (he cannot give any seminar in any French scientific institution) and has also been blacklisted by the ArXiv exactly like Mike McCulloch with MiHsC, even for paper published in peer reviewed academic, respectable and non predatory access journals. Petit's and McCulloch's work are not the same at all, but they share an attempt to challenge the mainstream concordance model in cosmology, which seems to trigger almost hate amongst the upholders of the standard model.

Especially, the interstellar travel schema proposed by the Janus model has stunning underlying possibilities, far away from the current trendy impulse propellantless engines, distortion warp drives and wormholes proposals.

Imagine Dr Petit invited to a propellantless propulsion workshop in the USA. What will he ask the attending engineers and physicists there? To learn topology, group theory and symplectic geometry in order to understand his model? And to let their research on advanced propulsion go, as there is no need for any reactionless drive when one can leverage the potential energy between the two conjugated metrics for hyperspace travel without the need for an "engine"?

« Last Edit: 07/14/2017 10:32 PM by flux_capacitor »

Offline gospacex

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #78 on: 07/13/2017 11:19 AM »
But this axiom was stated before the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. [8] We are even now in a "dark-energy-dominated era". Since such an acceleration implies the action of a negative pressure, and since a pressure is a density of energy (per unit of volume), this question should be reconsidered.

This is wrong. Pressure is not a density of energy. Energy is the T00 component of stress-energy tensor; pressure is components T11, T22 and T33. Accelerating expansion must have _positive_ energy density of vacuum (then it has negative pressure).

Offline flux_capacitor

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Re: Theoretical FTL
« Reply #79 on: 07/13/2017 11:40 AM »
But this axiom was stated before the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. [8] We are even now in a "dark-energy-dominated era". Since such an acceleration implies the action of a negative pressure, and since a pressure is a density of energy (per unit of volume), this question should be reconsidered.

This is wrong. Pressure is not a density of energy. Energy is the T00 component of stress-energy tensor; pressure is components T11, T22 and T33. Accelerating expansion must have _positive_ energy density of vacuum (then it has negative pressure).

I just usde the international System of Units (SI). We are in the habit of calculating a pressure in pascals, which are newtons per squared meter. But this is also similar to joules per cubic meter, a "volumetric" (i.e. per unit volume) energy density.

A pressure can be expressed as a force per unit surface, or an energy per unit volume, i.e. an energy density. They share the same physical units.

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