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SpaceX Reusable Rockets Section / Re: What do balloons enable?
« Last post by envy887 on Today at 02:32 PM »
Uh, not so obvious is, is this a top first or bottom first HIAD style ballute, of something like a shuttlecock with the engines first?

From a weight perspective being engine down is easier.

Shuttlecock style with the ballute cone poking out of the top in a trailing configuration means your engine is fully exposed though.

The towed ballute can be "poking out" any side you want. It does not matter that the stage is rear-heavy - the ballute will move the center of pressure of the whole assembly FAR behind the engine. If attached to the stage near it's perimeter, the tow rope will easily clear the MVac bell (the stage will actually pitch to move the center of mass below the attachment point, moving the bell further away from the rope).

A 100x increase in BC means a ballute about 30 m in diameter. A 30 m spherical Kapton balloon of 4 mil thickness would mass 322 kg and could hold 26 kg of He at 25 C and 1 kPa (about the air pressure at 30 km). Kapton is usable up to about 400 C. The whole package would be about the size of 2 Falcon 9 COPV bottles at launch assuming the He is 25 C and 375 bar. The ballute would start to crumple from air pressure after passing below 30 km altitude, but at that point it would be subsonic. Maybe they could pump air into it to keep it inflated.

At least, that's what I get at a first run through the numbers.

Press release, 20 April 2018

DLR at ILA Berlin 2018 – research aircraft, uncrewed flight, experiments for the Space Station and an Antarctic greenhouse

Full article with images:

The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) will present its latest projects and research results at the ILA Berlin Air Show from 25 to 29 April 2018. Again one of the largest institutional exhibitors in 2018, DLR
will provide fascinating insights into its current research on an approximately 700-square-metre stand in Hall 4, in the Space Pavilion, on the stand of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) in Hall 2, and at the ILA CareerCenter
in Hall 1. DLR will also use the outdoor area at ILA to showcase a large part of its research fleet – with various helicopters and aircraft – including its largest fleet member, the A320 ATRA, as well as a variety of experimental aircraft for uncrewed

"At ILA Berlin 2018, the leading trade fair for innovations in the aerospace industry, DLR is presenting forward-looking topics that provide solutions to the most urgent challenges facing society, such as climate change, digitalisation and Industry
4.0 – using the innovative power of the aerospace industry," explains Pascale Ehrenfreund, Chair of the DLR Executive Board. "ILA is the ideal venue for this, and the increased focus on science and research offers DLR excellent opportunities to maintain
and continue expanding its wide network of international collaborations with the scientific and business communities."

DLR will report daily from ILA on Twitter and Facebook. The two DLR press conferences (25 April at 10:00 and 26 April at 10:00) will be broadcast live on the social media platform YouTube.

DLR research aircraft at ILA

As the operator of Europe's largest fleet of civilian research aircraft, DLR will use the outdoor area at ILA to exhibit four research aircraft and two research helicopters. Acting as test platforms, the highly modified aircraft are themselves the
subject of aviation research or are used as platforms for scientific research. Their applications extend from the testing of new aeronautics technologies through Earth and ocean observation to atmospheric research. DLR will showcase the largest member
of its fleet, the Advanced Technology Research Aircraft – an Airbus A320 232 with the registration D ATRA. This aircraft offers aviation researchers and cooperation partners from the European aviation sector a broad variety of opportunities for advanced
development of aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, avionics, engine concepts and cabin comfort. Designed as an airborne laboratory, the Dassault Falcon 20E is used for global atmospheric and climate research, while the Dornier Do 228 212 D CFFU
is primarily used as a platform to carry radar and optical sensors for Earth observation. In contrast, the Cessna 208B Grand Caravan acts as DLR's 'flying lecture theatre'. Visitors will also be able to inspect the Eurocopter BO 105 research helicopter,
which takes to the sky for research into low-noise approach profiles, pilot assistance systems and flying with external loads. Also on show is the Eurocopter EC 135 Flying Helicopter Simulator (FHS), which provides a unique opportunity for the real-life
testing of innovative guidance and control systems.

Uncrewed flight, alternative fuels and low-noise landing approaches

DLR will present numerous innovative exhibits for the future of aviation at its stand in Hall 4. They include developments for the uncrewed transport of air cargo such as the UFO (Unmanned Freight Operations) project, in which DLR has developed solutions
for the integration of these aircraft into current air traffic systems. Alternative fuels like those recently analysed in a joint research campaign conducted by DLR and NASA offer significant potential for more environment friendly air transport. Visitors
to the DLR stand can see an original instrument rack used in the flight campaign and will be able to witness a live demonstration of burning standard kerosene, with its significantly higher soot emissions, compared to a synthetically optimised fuel.
DLR researchers have developed the Low Noise Augmentation System (LNAS), which provides pilots with assistance in order to reduce the in-flight noise produced by aircraft. Visitors to the stand will have ample opportunity to ask questions about the
necessary adjustments and control settings with which the system ensures noise-optimised landing approaches, as have already been tested at Frankfurt Airport. In addition, the stand will also feature a model showing research into a quiet engine with
noise reduction based on active noise control using compressed air injection.

A climate satellite, a humanoid robot and an asteroid lander

DLR will also showcase its research in the fields of Earth observation, suborbital hypersonic transport and space exploration at its stand in Hall 4. The innovative Tandem-L concept for global, radar-based environmental and climate monitoring will
be presented to visitors alongside the Franco-German Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), which is designed for the global mapping of the greenhouse gas methane. Also on show will be a model of the SpaceLiner, a visionary concept for a suborbital,
hypersonic fixed-wing passenger aircraft that can also be modified to be used as an uncrewed, reusable launch vehicle for the cost-effective launching of satellites into orbit. The humanoid robot TORO will demonstrate its mobility to visitors. DLR
will also join with its partners from the Japanese and French space agencies, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES), to present the asteroid mission Hayabusa 2 with a 1:1 model of the spacecraft
and the Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) lander that it is carrying. MASCOT will touch down on the Ryugu asteroid in October 2018 and then 'hop' across its surface. At the stand of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Bundesministerium
fuer Wirtschaft und Energie; BMWi), DLR will show a model of an experimental space surveillance radar, the German Experimental Space Surveillance and Tracking Radar (GESTRA). In future, this system will be able to identify and catalogue debris and
other objects in space. In addition, the DLR exhibition at the ILA CareerCenter will offer young scientists the unique experience of a virtual spacewalk along the outer shell of the International Space Station (ISS).

A hands-on experience in the ILA Space Pavilion

DLR will present more than 20 topics in the Space Pavilion, which is also in Hall 4. The immense range of space themes on show demonstrates the diversity of scientific and research projects on the operation and infrastructure of space applications,
while also testifying to the support of industry and the German contribution to the European Space Agency (ESA). Visitors can learn how space makes a clear contribution to improving the quality of life on Earth, for instance in the essential work of
Earth observation satellites like the Environmental Mapping and Analysis Programme (EnMAP) in the area of environmental and climate protection. They will also see why and how space derives new knowledge from missions like the 'extended ROentgen Survey
with an Imaging Telescope Array' (eROSITA). Scheduled for launch on 6 June 2018, the 'horizons' mission of German ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst is exemplary of these and similar benefits. DLR will use its exhibition in the Space Pavilion to provide
information about the mission and its scheduled experiments, including the astronaut assistant CIMON. Designed to investigate the possibility of deploying robotic swarms to explore planets and oceans, the space robots from the ARCHES project are certain
to impress visitors, as will the exhibition about the Antarctic greenhouse EDEN ISS, which is currently in Antarctica to cultivate food, the gained knowledge of which will supply future missions to the Moon and Mars with fresh produce. DLR's Berlin-based
planetary researchers are presenting their BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA) and MErcury Radiometer and Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer (MERTIS) experiments, which will be carried as part of the instrument payload on the European/Japanese BepiColombo
mission to Mercury, as well as the 'Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package' (HP3), which will set off for the Red Planet as part of NASA's InSight mission. The partners at the Space Pavilion are DLR, ESA, the German Aerospace Industries Association
(Bundesverband der Deutschen Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie; BDLI) and BMWi. The ILA Space Day will take place in the Space Pavilion on 25 and 26 April 2018, and will feature numerous talks and discussions. ILA Astronaut's Day on 27 April 2018 is open
to the public. The panel will include the German astronauts Hans Schlegel and Ulrich Walter, as well as their US colleagues Tom Henricks, Jerry Ross and Bernard A. Harris, who worked together 25 years ago – in 1993 – during the German D2 mission. DLR
will also stage a Science Show for visitors of all ages in the Space Pavilion between 13:00 and 15:00 on 28 April 2018. Among the guests will be the German ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer.
ESA Launchers - Ariane, Soyuz at CSG, Vega / Re: Space Rider
« Last post by AlexA on Today at 02:02 PM »
So is any part of this reusable? I get that it can bring experiments back to earth, but it looks like there will be, effectively, no real reuse going on here.
The "Re-entry Module" is intended to fly a minimum of 6 missions (i.e. be re-used at least 5 times), with a turn-around time of 4 months (TBC).
From the fact sheet:
Is this the last Rokot launch? Question to me on Twitter.

There should be at least 3 more flights, 2 for Russian military payloads and another for civilian use. However it is indeed planned for retirement at the end of this year.

It looks like another trio of Rodnik (Strela-3M/14F132) satellites are being prepared for launch, possibly later this year. ISS Reshetnyov has released documentation related to the transportation of the 14F132 Block nr. 16 satellites from Krasnoyarsk to Plesetsk on an Ilyushin-76 airplane. A transport company is to be selected in early May. No date for the transport has been scheduled yet. The documents only say that the transport company will be notified of the date 30 days in advance.

It will be interesting to see if this Rodnik launch carries another of the inspector satellites as a piggyback payload, as did the Rodnik launches on 25 December 2013 (Kosmos-2491) and 24 May 2014 (Kosmos-2499). True, the latest Rodnik launch on 23 September 2015 did not have an additional payload. The last of the Rokot-launched inspector satellites (Kosmos-2504) went up with a trio of civilian Gonets-M satellites on 31 March 2015.

Looks like the Rodnik launch is planned for this summer. In an interview last January the director of the Khrunichev Center expressed the hope that all four remaining Rokot boosters will be launched before the end of this year :
- 26 March-6 April : Sentinel-3B
- June : Ministry of Defense payload
- summer : Ministry of Defense payload
- October : Gonets-M trio

The payload for the June launch is a GEO-IK geodetic satellite.
This topic has been moved to Commercial Space Flight General.
Is this the last Rokot launch? Question to me on Twitter.
No !
June ? Geo-IK 2 (13L)
December ? 3 x Rodnik
ISS Section / Re: Expedition 55 Thread
« Last post by jacqmans on Today at 01:54 PM »

ISS Daily Summary Report – 4/19/2018

Miniature Exercise Device (MED-2):  The crew set up cameras in Node 3 to capture video from multiple views of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and MED-2 hardware.  They applied body markers, performed dead lifts and rowing exercises and then transferred the video for downlink.  The ISS’s exercise equipment is large and bulky, while the MED-2 aims to demonstrate small robotic actuators can provide motion and resistance for crew workout sessions, reducing the size and weight of exercise equipment for long-duration space missions. The MED-2 technology is critical for the design and development of second and third generation countermeasure hardware that is an order of magnitude lighter and smaller than existing ISS countermeasure hardware and that has significantly greater reliability.

Human Research Program (Biochemical Profile, Repository and Cell Free Epigenome):  54S crewmembers collected blood and urine samples for their Flight Day 30 sessions of the Biochem Profile, Repository and Cell Free Epigenome investigations today.
•The Biochemical Profile investigation tests blood and urine samples obtained from astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight. Specific proteins and chemicals in the samples are used as biomarkers, or indicators of health. Post-flight analysis yields a database of samples and test results; which scientists can use to study the effects of spaceflight on the body.
•Repository is a storage bank used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. The repository supports scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment and provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning many missions.
•The JAXA Cell Free Epigenome investigation tests blood samples collected from astronauts and cellular genes are analyzed.  Blood carries molecular signals released from the cells inside the body. The analysis results provide insights to scientists on how human bodies function during space flight.

Mouse Stress Defense:  The crew continued taking blood samples today for the Mouse Stress Defense investigation. They processed the samples in a centrifuge and then placed them into a Minus Eighty Degree Celsius Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI).  Microgravity provokes cellular mechanical stresses and perturbs cellular signaling, leading to reduction of muscle and bone density. To overcome these stresses, one of the promising strategies is to activate Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant pathway. Mouse Stress Defense investigates how Nrf2 contributes to effective prevention of space-originated stresses. 

Multi-Omics: Upon wakeup a 54S crewmember collected a saliva sample and placed it into a MELFI and completed a questionnaire. The Multi-omics analysis of human microbial-metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem (Multi-Omics) investigation evaluates the impacts of space environment and prebiotics on astronauts’ immune function, by combining the data obtained from the measurements of changes in the gut microbiological composition, metabolites profiles, and the immune system.

Team Task Switching:  A crewmember completed a Team Task Switching survey today.  When crew members are often required to switch their attention between tasks, performance on each of the tasks can be affected.  The objective of the Team Task Switching investigation is to gain knowledge about whether or not crew members have difficulty in switching tasks and determine the impacts of these switches, in order to both reduce any negative consequences and improve individual and team motivation and effectiveness.

Intermodule Ventilation (IMV) Valve Remove & Replace (R&R): This morning, the crew successfully removed and replaced the Lab Forward Port IMV Valve that was associated with the Remote Power Control Module (RPCM) Remote Power Controller 3 (RPC 3) trip that occurred on March 21, 2018. Following the installation of the new valve, the RPC was closed long enough to confirm valve functionality and then reopened as a safety precaution due to the ongoing investigation into the cause of the trip. The degraded IMV valve will be returned to the ground on SpX-14 for Test, Teardown and Evaluation (TT&E).

Node 3 (N3) Mass Constituent Analyzer (MCA) troubleshooting: As part of continuing N3 MCA troubleshooting, the crew removed the Verification Gas Assembly (VGA) ORU (ORU 08) installed on March 01, 2018 and reinstalled the old ORU 08. This will help determine if the newly installed ORU 08 was causing the current Node 3 MCA issues. To help rule out another potential failure mode, the crew also removed, inspected, and reinstalled Mass Spectrometer ORU (ORU 02) to ensure properly mated connections. The Node 3 MCA will be reactivated later today to determine if today’s troubleshooting efforts were effective.

Public Affairs Office (PAO) Events:  Feustel and Arnold participated in a live-to-air PAO event today with the South River High School in Edgewater, Maryland. This event was sponsored by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Approximately 900 students and faculty from the area participated.

Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Operations: Last night, robotics controllers used the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) and Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) to transfer the two of the three remaining MISSE Sample Container (MSC) from the MISSE transfer tray (MTT) to the MISSE Flight Facility (FF). The third and final MSC was removed from the MTT, however due to time constraints was not installed on the FF. This evening’s robotics operations have already commenced, and controllers will install the remaining MSC and perform a Mobile Transporter (MT) translation from Work Site (WS)2 to WS6.
ESA Launchers - Ariane, Soyuz at CSG, Vega / Re: Space Rider
« Last post by Prettz on Today at 01:53 PM »
Space Rider mission

ESA’s Space Rider aims to provide Europe with an affordable, independent, reusable end-to-end space transportation system integrated with Vega-C, for routine access and return from low Earth orbit.

Space Rider will debut in 2021 to provide a laboratory in space for an array of applications, orbit altitudes and inclinations.

- Related article: Announcement of opportunity to fly payloads to space on ESA's Space Rider

Image credit: ESA
So is any part of this reusable? I get that it can bring experiments back to earth, but it looks like there will be, effectively, no real reuse going on here.
From the Who will compete threads, with edit per this announcement:

Don't know why this thread keeps expanding.  The answer is obvious, it is OSC, ULA, Boeing, LM, Arianespace, Energia, Krunichev, Blue Origin, SNC, etc.  The base assumption that Spacex is taking over the market is just wrong.

Wrong.  Soyuz will still be around.  And Energia and Krunichev are still competitors. 

Again, another idiotic post.

Seems to be a constant trend
The same thing that allows an undersea hotel in the Keys with scuba pizza delivery to stay proffitable. Total loss systems are cheap, easy, and have been in use since the 19th century. We havent been ABLE to use them till now because of launch costs but CATS changes all architecture rules.

The US side water recycling system in ISS costs somewhere around $250 million and saves about 6.8 tons a year.

You could buy a couple of Falcon 9 launches for that much.

Launching 6.8mT would take more than two $130M F9/Dragon missions...


Not if it's water. Dragon is volume-constrained with typical cargo, but water is dense enough to easily fit. That might even fit in one mission since Dragon has internal volume of 10 m^3. Would depend how it's packaged. It could also go in the trunk, if properly packaged, but might have to be delivered through the airlock unless they could plumb it right into the capsule.
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